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Mendelian Genetics

by: Rebbecca Taing

Mendelian Genetics BIOL1362

Marketplace > University of Houston > Science > BIOL1362 > Mendelian Genetics
Rebbecca Taing
GPA 3.0

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Chapter 11
BIOL 1362
Ann Oliver Cheek
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebbecca Taing on Thursday August 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL1362 at University of Houston taught by Ann Oliver Cheek in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see BIOL 1362 in Science at University of Houston.


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Date Created: 08/04/16
Mendelian Genetics Thursday, January 21, 209:57 PM Chapter 11 Chromosome: a DNA molecule associated w/ histone proteins • Bacteria & archaea chrom: DNA double helix • Eukaryotes: DNA double helix associated w/ histone proteins -nucleosome- 8 histone proteins organized into a spool shape -coiled up chromatin fiber 30nm wide • Eukaryotes have multiple chromosomes -each have a unique portion of organism's genes -each diff length ○ 1 chrom can have 100-1000s of genes -a set of chrom include all of an organisms genes Genome- all genes of an organism • Eukaryotes have 2+ sets of chrom Karyotype- pic of all chrom matched together from long to short Karyon- nucleus Homologous chrom- same length & contain genes for same character: 1 mom, 1 dad Sex chrom- carry genes that determine individ sex Autosomes- carry genes for all body fxns n- # of chrom per set • 23 in humans • Haploid # 2n- total # of chrom in ea body cell of a sex producing animal • Diploid # • 2n- 46 in humans, 78 in dogs, 8 in fruitflys 1. Mendel's obs in modern terms • 2 diff alleles -dom determines appearance -rec no effect on appearance -heterozygous- homologous chrom carry diff allele for gene -homozygous- homologous chrom carry same allele for a gene • Individ animal Gene for flower color -ea chrom contains 1 allele/gene Allele for purple -pair of homologous chrom may have same or 2 diff alleles for gene • Pop of animals -w/in a pop of individs, many diff alleles may exist for 1 gene, can have repeats Gene for flower color Allele for white Monohybrid Cross = F1 hybrid x F1 hybrid F1 genotype: F1 gametes from each parent: Possible combinations of gametes shown in a Punnet square below. P p P PP Pp p Pp pp Test Cross Unknown genotype x homozygous recessive Possible results: p p p p P Pp Pp P Pp Pp P Pp Pp p pp pp Dihybrid Cross: YyRr x YyRr Hypothesis: alleles for 2 characters assort together Predicted F2 genotypes: YR yr YR YYRR YyRr yr YyRr yyrr Predicted F2 phenotypes (based on genotype): Alternatehypothesis: alleles for 2 characters assort independently Predicted F2 genotypes: YR Yr yR yr YR YYRR YYRr YyRR YyRr biology Page 1 YR YYRR YYRr YyRR YyRr Yr YYRr YYrr YyRr Yyrr yR YyRR YyRr yyRR yyRr yr YyRr Yyrr yyRr yyrr Predicted F2 phenotypes (based on genotypes): From <> Gregor Mendel 1822-84 No one knew about chromosomes Hypotheses about heredity 1. Blending • Characteristics of parents mix like paint in offspring 2. Particulate • Heritable "particles" of parents are shuffled @ fertilization biology Page 2 • Heritable "particles" of parents are shuffled @ fertilization • Offspring characteristics depend on which "particles" inherited I. Laws of Inheritance • Character- heritable feature that varies btwn individs • Trait- variation of a character • P- parental gen • F1- 1st filial gen (offspring) • F2- 2nd filial gen (offspring of F1) A. Mendel’s methods • Experimented w/ characters w. 2 distinctly different traits • P were true breeding plants; either showed one characteristic or the other B. Law of segregation 1. Mendel’s model ○ Characters come in different versions ○ 2 characters separate from each other- segregate- when gametes form ○ Characteristics end up in different gametes 2. Predicting offspring genotype & phenotype Phenotype- appearance Genotype- genetic makeup ○ If P genotype is known, possible gamete genotypes are known ○ Letter represents character (gene) ○ Use same letter for both traits (alleles) b/c this represents the 2 versions of the same character (gene) ○ Capital letter- dominant trait ○ Lowercase letter- recessive trait ○ Punnett square -monohybrid cross  Hybrid- heterozygous  Mono- 1  Cross btwn parents heterozygous for 1 gene -test cross  Method to figure out genotype of an individ w/ dom phenotype  Could be PP or Pp; represent as P_  Cross w/ individ of known geno- recessive pheno  Ratio of offspring pheno's will indicate whether (_) is P or p C. Law of Independent assortment 1. Mendel’s experiments ○ Seed color: yellow or green ○ Seed shape: round or wrinkled ○ Notation: Y yellow y green R round r wrinkled ○ Dihybrid cross -H1- alleles assort together, dependent assortment  Predicted pheno ratio 3:1 Law of IA- traits for 1 character are sorted into gametes- assort- independently of traits of another character 2. Chromosomal basis ○ Characters are expressed as different traits -ex. Flower color can be purple or white ○ Modern terms -character is programmed by a gene unique sequence of DNA nucleotides that code for a protein -traits result from allele- version of a gene, codes for the specific version of a character -locus- location on a chrom where a gene sits -an individ inherits 2 alleles for each gene, 1 from mother, 1 from father Locus=gene II. Degrees of dominance A. Co-dominance • AB blood type B. Epistasis • 2+ genes determine pheno • Pheno of one gene changes way other one is expressed III. Pedigree analysis • Analyzing human genetics through family history of traits • Roman numeral for generation Male female has trait Reading: Chapter 11 Concept Check: 11.1 Q’s 1 – 3; 11.2 Q’s 1 – 3 Test Your Understanding: Q1-4, 6-12, 16-18, 20 biology Page 3


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