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Exam Review #1

by: Victoria LeBlanc

Exam Review #1 BIOL 1202

Victoria LeBlanc

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About this Document

This is a general exam review for what is going to be on your first exam
Biology for Science Majors
S. Crousillac
Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria LeBlanc on Friday August 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1202 at Louisiana State University taught by S. Crousillac in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Biology for Science Majors in Biology at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 08/05/16
SI: David Barry Professor: Dr. Crousillac BIO 1202, Exam 1 Review Cnidarians Platyhelmint Porifera Mollusca Annelida Arthropoda hes Body Bi-Lateral Varies Varies Varies Plan: Tissue Lack true Triploblast Triploblasti Triploblasti Type: tissues ic c c and organs Coelomat Acoelomat Coeloma Coelomate e or e te acoeloma te Defining Central Three tissue Filter feed Most Segment 2/3 known Feature gastrovasc layers but Choanocyt have an ed body, species ular cavity no body es > open closed cavities Amoebocy circulator circulator tes y system, y system Radula; w/ 5 feeding pumping organ hearts Cnidarians: The _______ is the layer between the epidermis and endodermis. ____________form is generally sessile while ___________ form moves freely in water by drifting and contractions of the bell. The ______________ __ surrounds the gastrovascular cavity. ____________________ are unique cells that function in defense and the capture of prey. Platyhelminthes: Trematoda (flukes) and Cestoda (tapeworms) are usually parasites of _____________. Mollusca: The __________ is a rasp-like feeding organ that scrapes and scoops food items. Class _______________ (snails and slugs) have an asymmetrical body usually with a coiled shell. They have a radula. Mostly suspension feeders, class ________________ (clams, mussels, oysters) have a flattened shell with 2 valves and no radula. Class _________________ (squids, octopods, cuttlefish) have a head surrounded by grasping tentacles, they may have a shell or not. Most neurologically advanced invertebrates Annelida: The _______________ are excretory tubes that remove wastes from blood and coelomic fluid. _________________________ functions as a rudimentary brain. Arthropoda: Exoskeleton made up of ____________, a polysaccharide. Shedding of exoskeleton is a process called ___________. Arthropods have a/an _________ circulatory system. Arachnids, of the phylum Arthropoda, have 2 body regions, the _______________ and the ____________. Cephalothorax has ____ pairs of appendages - - - Insect anatomy: Cerebral ganglion and ________________ are concentrated in the head. Metabolic wastes are removed from hemolymph by _________________________. Ventral nerve cord w/ segmented ganglia. 3 body regions: ____________, _______________, and _____________. ___ pairs of walking legs on the thorax. Echinoderms and chordates are deuterostomes. Deuterostomes share 3 common developmental characteristics. 1. 2. 3. Phylum Echinodermata Echinoderm: _____ skin. Slow moving or sessile marine animals. _________ Symmetry. Water vascular system consists of ______ canal and ______radial canals. Branching from the radial canals are the ____________. These are used for locomotion, capturing prey, and attaching to surfaces. The 2 chordate subphyla consisting of invertebrates are _________ ______ and __________________. Subphylum ____________ includes the vertebrates. List the 4 derived characteristics of chordates. 1. 2. 3. 4. Which subphylum of Chordates possesses these characteristics during the larval stage? A) Urochordata B) Cephalochordata C) Craniates D) Arthropods _____________, class Myxini, are jawless, marine craniates with NO vertebrae. Vertebrates are ___________ that have a backbone. Which of these is not a characteristic of vertebrates? A) Vertebrae enclosing spinal chord B) An elaborate skull C) Fin rays, in aquatic forms D) Notochord only during larval stage Lampreys, the oldest living lineage of vertebrates, belong to which class? A) Petromyzontida B) Gnathostomes C) Arachnids D) Hexapoda List the 4 defining features of Gnathostomes: 1. 2. 3. 4. Chondrichthyans (sharks, rays, relatives) along with most vertebrates (including ourselves) belong to a clade called ____________ which are characterized by their bony endoskeleton. Aquatic __________ are vertebrates we call fish. A) Arthropods B) Myxini C) Petromyzontida D) Osteichthyes Amphibians Class: Amphibia Order: ____________ (salamanders) Order :______________( frogs and toads) Order:_____________(caecilians) Moist skin _____________________________________________. Live between aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Why? Match the term with the correct definition referring to the amniotic egg in some terrestrial animals. Amnion Chorion Allantois Yolk sac Protects the embryo in a fluid-filled cavity _____________ Exchanges gases between embryo and the air ______________ Provides nutrients for the developing embryo _______________ Disposal sac for certain metabolic wastes. Also functions w/ chorion as respiratory organ. ______________ Derived characteristics of mammals: 1. Mammary glands that produce milk 2. Hair and insulating layer of fat beneath skin 3. 4. 5. 6. Differentiation of teeth ___________ Young are born very early in development and crawl into __________ (pouch), here is where development is completed. ___________ (placental mammals) have a longer period of pregnancy and complete embryonic development within a uterus, joined to the mother by a placenta. _____________ are mammals that lay leathery eggs. Which circulatory adaptation facilitates heat loss? Which one lowers heat loss? Vasodilation: Vasoconstriction: Which of the following produce heat? (Check all that apply) Digestion and absorption Cellular respiration Cellular work Biosynthesis: growth, storage, and reproduction Which one of these examples describes a positive feedback system, which one describes a negative feedback system? Blood pressure rises, the brain sends a signal back to these blood vessels causing them to vasodilate, increasing blood flow and decreasing heart rate. A woman is going into labor, signals are sent to the brain and the pituitary gland releases oxytocin, a hormone causing the uterine muscle to contract in a women giving birth. What is this a picture of? What do they do? Epithelial tissue covers the outside of the body and lines the organs and cavities within the body. Columnar epithelia, a relatively large type of epithelial cell are often found where? A) Where secretion or active absorption takes place B) Line the Pancreas C) Cover the inside of the nasal cavity D) In the stomach ______________ Tissue mainly functions to bind and support other tissue. Composed of sparsely packed cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix. Which of the following is NOT connective tissue? (Circle all that apply) A) Loose connective tissue B) Fibrous connective tissue C) Adipose tissue D) Cartilage E) Blood F) Bone G) Heart 3 types of muscle tissue: 1. 2. 3. _____________ reduces the flow of heat between an animal and its environment. What are some examples of this? Basal metabolic rate (BMR): Standard metabolic rate (SMR): Chemical energy is composed of _____________, mostly supplied by ________________,___________, and lipids. Other nutrients include ___________ and _____________. How many amino acids do animals require? A) 8 B) 18 C) 20 D) 15 E) 25 How many of these amino acids are required from diet? (Can’t synthesize ourselves) A) 7 B) 8 C) 9 D) 10 E) 4 Essential fatty acids are required in the diet. These are usually unsaturated/saturated fatty acids. (circle one) Circle the fat soluble vitamins: Vitamin A B complex Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K This means that vitamins ____ and _____ are water soluble. What are minerals? What functions do they serve in the body? The four stages of food processing are: 1. 2. 3. 4. The ________________ is a complete digestive tract that has a tube with a mouth and anus. Allows animals to eat more frequently due to the specialized, organized regions. The ________ secretes bile to aid in the chemical breakdown of ________. The gallbladder stores and concentrates this bile A. Liver/Lipids B. Gallbladder/Proteins C. Pancreas/Carbohydrates D. Mouth/Carbohydrates The __________ secretes a variety of digestive enzymes. It is also part of the endocrine system, producing several important hormones, such as insulin, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptide. _________ is an enzyme that catalyzed the breakdown of starches into sugars. Present in human saliva. Put these steps in order. A) Esophageal sphincter relaxes allowing bolus to enter esophagus B) Larynx moves up and tips the epiglottis over the glottis C) Tongue pushes food into pharynx initiating swallow reflex D) Waves of muscular contraction (peristalsis) moves the bolus down the esophagus into the stomach List the 3 major functions of the stomach 1. 2. 3 List the 3 stomach secretions and their purpose 1. 2. 3. Most digestion and absorption takes place in the ___________________. List the 3 secretions of the above organ: 1. 2. 3. The pancreas secretes pancreatic juice, which is released into the ____________________. _____ and ________ increase the surface area of the small intestine by numerous folds. Finger-like projections where small molecules get absorbed into the bloodstream. ___________,_________,________,_____________________________, pass through the epithelium of the small intestine & enter the bloodstream. Which digestive organ absorbs leftover water, vitamins, and salts? This organ contains bacteria that consume unabsorbed nutrients and synthesize vitamins. Note: Intestinal length is correlated with diet.


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