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RECONSTRUCTION Focus Questions: What were the different approaches to the Reconstruction of the Confederate states? How did white southerners respond to the end of the old order in the South? To what extent did black function as citizens in the reconstructed South? What were the main issues in national politics in the 1870s? Why did Reconstruction end in 1877? Something to think about: It was a period of oppression and repression (control) of white southerners The problem with reconstruction it did too little to change black lives (unfinished) It involved more social change and more rights for blacks - Reconstruction started while the war was still going on A civil war fought by the North to save the Union had become a transforming social force Defeated Confederacy now had to come to terms with new orders 13 Amendment: Abolished slavery everywhere Union= North Confederate= South Development in the North Homestead Act of 1862: provided few federal homesteads of 160 acres to settlers, who only had to occupy the land for five years to gain title - Morrill Land Grant Act of the same year: conveyed to each state 30,000 acres of federal land per member of Congress from the state But the south however, the emotional devastation caused by the war was worse than the physical destruction Legally Free, Socially Bound They were no longer slaves, but were they citizens? - Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 implied that former slaves would become US citizens, but citizenship was then defined and protected by state law, and southern states in 1865 did not have state governments - A few northerners argued that what the ex-slaves needed most was their own land I. ISSUES 1865- Civil war is over 3 kinds of major issues: 1. Political: How are we going to bring the south back into the union? How to reduce southern power? How power/what role is the federal son have? Who has responsibility for setting policy bringing the south back in the union (president or congress)? 2. Economic: What replaces slavery? 3. Racial: What roles are African Americans going to play in the American society? A. WHAT’S CLEAR B. WHAT’S TO BE DECIDED? 1. POLITICAL 2. ECONOMIC 3. RACIAL C. WHO IS INVOLVED? Groups associated with reconstruction: White northerners: democrats, republicans (moderate, radicals) White southerners African Americans II: PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCIONT (1865-66): THE FAILURE OF SELF- RECONSTRUCTION A. REQUIREMENTS OF THE SOUTH 1. LINCOLN’S PLAN Issued a Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction, under which any former Rebel state could form a Union government whenever a number equal to 10 percent of those who had voted in 1860 took an oath of allegiance to the Constitution and the Union and had received presidential pardon - Participants had to swear to support for laws and proclamation dealing with emancipation - Groups that were excluded from pardon: confederate officials, senior officers of the confederate army and navy; judges, congressmen, and military officers of the US who had left their federal posts to aid the rebellion; and those accused of failure to treat capture African American soldiers and their officers as prisoners of war - He wanted to guarantee each state a republican form of government - But many republican congressmen argued that this obligation implied that congress, not the president should supervise Reconstruction - Lincoln pronounced that the Confederate states never left the Union - Object: get them back into their proper practical relation 2. EARLY ACTIONS Politicians disagreed as to where authority to restore Rebel states properly rested Congress is very critical to his plan (wants a more radical plan) th Congress pass the 13 amendment to the constitution which makes slavery illegal A few conservative and most moderate Republicans supported Lincoln’s program of immediate restoration The Radical Republicans however, favored a sweeping transformation of Southern society based upon granting freed slaves full-fledged citizenship - Insisted congress control the Reconstruction program - Passed the Wade- Davis Bill- required that a majority of white male citizens declare their allegiance and that only those who could take an “ironclad” oath attesting to their past loyalty could vote or serve in the state constitutional conventions - But Lincoln vetoed it (never became a law) TH a. 13 AMENDMENT - Makes slavery illegal b. FREEDMEN’S BUREAU FB: declared that freed slaves “must be free to choose their own employers, and be paid for their labor.” - The intensity of racial prejudice in the South often thwarted the efforts of Freedmen’s Bureau agents to protect and assist the former slaves - Across the former Confederacy at the end of the war, it was evident that the former white economic elite was determined to continue to control and constrain African Americans - Government’s agency - Aid a lot of people after the war - Aid the transition of the former slaves in the freedom - Contains the possibility of distributing lands to a former slaves - During the war congress passed a law to confiscated a fair amount of land that was owned by the confederacy th - On the evening of April 14 1865, Lincoln and his wife Mary went to see a play at Ford’s theatre. John Wilkes Booth (confederate) shot Lincoln in the back of the head. 2. JOHNSON’S REQUIREMENTS Johnson was a war (pro-Union) Democrat from Tennessee In 1865 he declared, “There is no such thing as reconstruction. Those states have not gone out of the Union. Therefore Reconstruction is unnecessary.” - He opposed the growing Radical sentiment to grant the vote to African Americans - Johnson’s plan to restore the Union thus closely resembled Lincolns - He readmitted the former Confederated states - In each state a native Unionist became provisional governor - Each state had to ratify the 13 amendment He was a southern unionist because he hated slave owners (poor white) He took over the process of reconstruction Lincoln and Johnson maintained that it was president responsibly setting policy bringing the south back in the union Process called Self- reconstruction He is setting up civilian government th He wants the southern states to ratify the 13 amendment, repeal succession, and pay back debt to the confederate states Pardoning: you get to vote again and you get your property The president takes control and answers questions about bringing the south back into the nation White southerners (unionist) back into control and to be governor on each state B. WHITE SOUTH’S RESPONSE - Congress faced the fact that the new state governments in the post war South were remarkably like the Confederate ones In 1865 white southerners knew that they had lost That meant that the south would be brought back into the union Slavery will no longer exist White southerners remained committed to try and preserve as much self-control within this reunited nation - The 13 amendment is passed 1. QUIBBLING OVER TERMS They did not want to repeal succession or pay back debt 2. BLACK CODES The black codes were designed to restrict the freedom of African Americans Whites were not allowed to marry a black man With that came increasing levels of violence If a black man rapes a white woman he would be sentenced to death If a white man rapes a white women he would have to serve so many years in prison 3. VIOLENCE Whites became mad and had hatred toward blacks Throughout the south there was white violence against blacks 4. SENDING BACK CONFEDERATES TO CONGRESS The radical republicans had been connected with anti-slavery for decades - Most republicans needed African American votes to maintain their control of Congress and the White House - Congress, not the president, was the proper authority to determine how and when such rights might be restored RECONSTRUCTION II: PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCIONT (1865-66): THE FAILURE OF SELF- RECONSTRUCTION Radical Republican’s views had gained a majority in Congress, if one not yet large enough to override presidential vetoes C. REPUBLICANS IN CONGRESS RESPOND 1. FREEDMEN’S BUREAU AND CIVIL RIGHTS ACT Johnson challenged Congress in 1866, when he vetoed a bill to extend the life of the Freedmen’s Bureau They called him “an alien enemy of a foreign state” FB: Federal agency designed to help African Americans Civil rights act: providing basic rights of citizenship for African Americans - Radical led Congress passed the Civil Rights act - They would be entitled to full and equal benefit of all laws - Johnson veto’s both of them - Congress passes them over his veto’s - Congress pass and sends to the people the 14 amendment - From that point on, Johnson steadily lost both public and political support TH 2. PROPOSED 14 AMENDMENT Anybody born or naturalized in the US is a citizen with certain rights Rights to equal protection under the law Blacks can be citizens th - The 14 amendment also prohibited the president from granting pardons to former Confederate leaders Issues: it did limit certain former confederates from holding office Problem with congress: Three fifths compromise- every person is counted for votes If you deny a group of people a right to vote then you get your representation reduce They are not getting black people the right to vote yet Congress sends 14 amendment to states for ratification At this point there will be a dramatic change Two issues: 1. The power of reconstruction shifts to the president to congress 2. New plan for the south (throw out everything Johnson has done) Why? African Americans across the country are going to conventions that are pushing the nation to go further. But most democrats in the north are more racists than the southerners. Radicals (republican party): committed to racial equality; transform the southern social war; redistribution of land - They never controlled congress or the republican party - Moderate** (heart of radical) - Moderate are willing to go further because of the way self reconstruction in their view has been changed D. JOHNSON AND THE WHITE SOUTH BALK Many people thought of Johnson to be a drunken fool The 1866 congressional elections were a devastating defeat for Johnson - Republicans won more than a two-thirds majority in each house III. A NEW APPROACH: CONGRESSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION (CR)— DEVELOPMENTS IN WASHINGTON Three crucial laws promoting what came to be called “Congressional Reconstruction”: the Military Reconstruction Act, the Command of the Army Act, and the Tenure of Office Act ‘ - CR was designed to prevent white southerners from manipulating the reconstruction process - MRA: an amendment to an army appropriation - CAA: required that all order from the commander in chief go through the headquarters of the general for the army (held by Ulysses S. Grant) - Radical Republicans trusted Grant - TOA: required Senate permission from the president to remove any federal office holder whose appointment the Senate had confirmed - The MRA was denounced (openly) as it set a precedent among former slaves societies in providing voting rights to freed slaves almost immediately after emancipation o Represented the nations’ first effort in military-enforced nation building A. WHY NORTH SHIFTS TO MORE THOROUGH GOING RECONSTRUCTION - The MRA declared, “no legal state governments or adequate protection for life and property now exists in the rebel states” - Each state constitution had to guarantee the right of African American males to vote - Once the 14 amendment is ratified, any given state would be entitled to representation in Congress B. NEW PLAN FOR THE SOUTH They create a series of laws called the reconstruction acts Here is way they create a temporary process of military rule New state constitutions (have to ratify the 14 amendment and African Americans get to vote) - African Americans virtually gave all their votes to Republican Candidates - 1868: Congress simply removed the power of the Supreme Court to review cases arising under the MRA Texas v. White (1869): Congress had the right to reframe state governments, thus endorsing the Radical Republicans point of view B. TAKING CONTROL FROM JOHSNON—LEADS TO FAILED IMPACEMENT By 1868 Radical Republicans had decided that Andrew Johnson must be removed from office They had tried in 1867 but he had no crimes for impeachment Johnson hates black people (racists views) Politically he realizes he is now dead to the Republican Party He tries to stop it: Fights various people Political battle between Johnson and congress Congress is setting policy and Johnson and trying to stop Mood to impeach Andrew Johnson The house votes to impeach (votes yes) Goes to senate for trial Can you impeach simply because he tries to fight congress? The senate decides on the higher standard The attempt to impeach fails After that Johnson is powerless, the trial weakened his presidency Johnson agreed not to obstruct the process of Congressional-led Reconstruction Ulysses S, Grant was president (Republican) th 15 Amendment of the constitution: black the right the vote - Guarantee suffrage Civil Rights act- prevents segregation Congress takes control from Andrew Johnson - Not a whole lot of legislation (further movement) What will happen in the South? C. LIMITED NEW POLITICS AFTER THAT The State was compelled to ratify the 15 Amendment, which states to deny any person to vote on grounds of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” Amendments relating to ending slavery: 13 , 14 , and 15 th Long before the new governments were established, groups promoting the Republican Party had begun to spring up in the south IV. CONGRESSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION—DEVELPMENTS IN THE SOUTH Political solution: if you give blacks the right the vote then they will be able to protect themselves A. BI-RACIAL POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT UNDER REPUBLICAN PARTY Whites used terror, intimidation, and violence to suppress black efforts to gain social and economic equality The Civil War did bring enslaved African Americans their freedom, but did not bring them protection against exploitation or abuse Black Military veterans would form the core of the first generation of African American political leaders in the postwar South By 1890 over 1.3 million African Americans in the South had become Baptists. African Americans had organized organizations, associations, and even schools o For many freed blacks (and poor whites) the primary vocational option after the war was sharecropping, in which the crop produced was divided between the tenant farmer and the landowner African Americans in Southern Politics: By 1867, former slaves had begun to gain political influence and vote in large numbers - This developed tensions within the African American community - No black man was ever elected governor, and only a few served as judges First time that they tried to make democracy with both black and whites fully participating in the system - Creation in the south republican Parties (never been one) - Who will make up this party? - African Americans, Carpetbaggers (northern white who moved to the south after the war), Scalawags (native white southern who become republicans) - Overtime increasing numbers of African American republican leaders were former slaves - In most states these republican parties take control of southern politics 1. NEW CONSTITUTIONS AND GOVERNMENTS 2. COMPOSITION OF REPUBLICANS PARTY (3) 3. WHAT THEY DO a. ACCOMPLISHMENTS IN POWER Expand the role of government; public education; committed the gospel of prosperity (invest in economic development); build road and invest in railroads b. TAXES (Failures) if you have services you need to pay for them; before the war people would pay taxes on slaves (it is now liberated); many of the small farmers are going to face an increasing number of taxes on their land c. CORRUPTION Often blamed on blacks; Success of change is based on the political reality Coming out of the war white southerners plantation owners know what they what - They are still committed to bringing the plantation as close as it was before the war - But do that without causing slavery African Americans come out of the war with a very different vision RECONSTRUCTION IV. CONGRESSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION—DEVELPMENTS IN THE SOUTH Congressional reconstruction is much more dramatic than presidential reconstruction - President left most of the control with whites who had been controlling the south - The white south did not change much - In 1866 congress wins control and they started the process all over again - They will take control out of Johnson hands and put it into the congressmen - They try to impeach Johnson out of office - 1868: Ulysses S. Grant is elected as President - As the moderate become upset with the lack of Southern change (southern acceptance of northern victory) - Temporary creation of military rule - One huge difference: African American suffrage (right to vote in political elections) - If you give blacks the right to vote, you can use the political process to change the way the south operates - Republicans are governing the south and are doing it relatively successfully B. ECONOMIC RESONSTRUCTION The south was based on plantation agriculture What will change with the South’s economy? African Americans want land coming out of slavery At the end of the war some of them are getting it 1. GOALS OF BLACKS AND WHITES African Americans are committed to own land because they argue that they deserve it They would add why would we not get the land when we supported the union when others did not support them IF they do not get land, they want full citizenship, the right to vote, and as much freedom and independence from the former slave owners as they possible can get The white wants to go back to plantation agriculture and for blacks to live there - Slave masters want as much control as they can - The result of the negotiation varied by crop 2. EMERGING COMRPOMISE: TENANTRY AND SHARECROPPING The south remained a cotton economy Sharecropping: better for African American than slavery The crop produced was divided between the tenant farmer and the landowner If you’re a sharecropper and the guy who owns a plantation okay you got a job but if you vote republican, you wont get the job Define Tenantry* What it means for the South as a whole: the south will be incredibly poor 2. RESULT: COTTON ECONOMY AND POVERTY The south loses all of its capital it had in slavery The decision to commit to slavery in the first place 1879 the south is producing as much cotton as it did as it was before the war They will get less money from it The south will be poor C. SOCIETY You do begin to have the creation of all black institutions You also begin to have the emergence of white and black churches Whites tried to keep churches still segregated The blacks vision of religious practice was different from the whites You begin to have segregation of other aspects In society as in politics there is more interaction in reconstruction You have this period of hopefulness V. THE END OF RECONSTRUCTION A. POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS 1. TENSIONS WITHIN SOUTHERN REPUBLICAN PARTY 2. GROWING WHITE UNITY WITH DEMOCRATIC PARTY 3. WHITES’ USE OF TERRORISM 4. DECLINE IN NOTHERN INTEREST/ENFORCEMENT Why does it come to an end? 1. It is very difficult to hold that biracial republican party together - To help the south it is spending a lot of money on railroad development One hand the Republican Party is trying to do that What we need is redistribution of land and farmers Conflict in goals in the Republican Party Other tensions: split increasingly over offices - The further you get form slavery the further an African American participate in politics 2. Growing unity among whites - Whites are forming a democratic party - They have a lot of issues - Taxes is a big issue (increase in taxes) - Before the civil war one the of the big taxes was for slaves - More farmers are having struggles with increasing number of taxes - Home ruled: party of the republican in the south involved people in the north - Republicans who were ruling us came from not the south - Most importantly they used race - The democrats begin to say black people are begging to control everything ?? - You have to vote democrat if you want the blacks to rule 3. Whites resort to political terrorism to regain control - Ku Klux Klan: organizes whites for a mass terrorize organization - Burned school, killed, the violence became organized - Most areas it works frighteningly well What is the federal government going to do? - Bring in the army to protect African Americans - When is the north going to intervene? 4. The north lack of help - The white north and the federal government are increasingly unwilling to intervene - They are just getting tired - Fixated on the corruption - 1873 the US economy enters a terrible depression - White northerners issue is the economy not the south - The size of the army’s presence in the south continues to go down Democrats mobilize all whites Slowly state-by-state the white democrats take control B. DSIPUTE ELECTION OF 1876-77 Democrat: Samuel Tilden Republican: Rutherford Hayes - You have this real problem.. Who won the election - You have a major constitutional crisis - Special commission was established to count contested electoral votes - Deal: Hayes gets to be president - Providing money for southern development - Republicans get the white house and the white democrats get control of South Carolina, and Louisiana - Every southern state is now under white democratic political control VI. OUTCOME OF RECONSTRUCTION A. POLITICAL You have a reunified nation; America is one nation You do have a reduction southern influence within the national government B. ECONOMIC The south is not radically transformed C. RACIAL Freedom is better than slavery The 13 , 14 , 15 amendment coming out of reconstruction Whites still control most of the land Could Reconstruction been better? Maybe with more forceful conventions by federal authorities It was a period of hopefulness The congressional plan to use in politics does not work End of Chapter Review: Reconstruction: Abraham Lincoln and his successor, southerner Andrew Johnson, wanted an easygoing and quick plan for Reconstruction. Lincoln’s assignation made many northerners favor the Radical Republicans, who wanted to end the grasp of the old planter class on the South’s society and economy. Congressional Reconstruction included the stipulation that to reenter the Union, former Confederate states had to ratify the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments. Congress also passed the Military Reconstruction Act, which attempted to protect the voting rights and civil rights of American Americans. Southern Violence: Many white southerners blamed their poverty on freed slaves and Yankees. White mobs attacked blacks in 1866 in Memphis and New Orleans. That year, the Ku Klux Klan was formed as a social; its members soon began to intimidate freemen and white Republicans. Despite government action, violence continued and even escalated in the South. Freed Slaves: Newly freed slaves suffered economically. Most did not have the resources to succeed in the aftermath of the war’s devastation. There was no redistribution of land; former slaves were given their freedom but nothing else. The Freedmen’s Bureau attempted to educate and aid freed slaves and reunite families. Many former slaves found comfort in their families and the independent churches they established. Some took part in state and local government under the last, radical phase of Reconstruction. Grant Administration: During Ulysses S. Grant’s administration fiscal issues dominated politics. Paper money (greenbacks) was regarded as inflationary (gifts); and agrarian and debtor groups opposed its withdrawal from circulation. Many members of Grant’s administration were corrupt; scandals involved an attempt to corer the gold market, construction of the international railroad, and the whiskeys rings’ plan to steal millions of dollars in tax revenue. End of Reconstruction: Most southern states had completed the requirements of Reconstruction by 1876. The presidential election returns of that year were so close that a special commission was established to count contested electoral votes. A decision hammered out at a secret meeting gave the presidency to the Republican, Rutherford B. Hayes; in return, the Democrats were promised that the last federal troops would be withdrawn from Louisiana and South Carolina, putting an end to the Radical Republicans administration in the southern states (Timeline/key terms of the events that occurred from 1862-1877 on page 572) WHERE WE (AND AMERICA) ARE GOING: INTRODUCTION TO AN ARGUMENT CHANGES IN AMERICAN SOCIETY His tests are combinations of short answers Quiz Wednesday: Just on reconstruction Extra credit: 25 minutes to do the extra credit (at home) I. EMERGENCE OF A NATIONAL BUSINESS AND INDUSTRIAL SYSTEM Series of changes that will have enormous impact in American society: o Rise of national business and industrial system o Immigration o Urban growth o Symbolic closure of westward expansion o Crisis of faith and confidence All of these things will set off independence, order, and confidence In response, people will offer alternatives The two movements that do that are the knights of Labor and Populists The 1890’s are an important decade (determines what will happen in the 20 century) Election of 1896: Mickenly wins due to suggestion on how to fix problems Progressivism (beginning the change in government) The scale of industry will change dramatically - Business will be conducted on a national scale - Major source of the change is the railroad A. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS 1. FACTORS BEHIND a. COMPLETION OF THE RAILROAD NETWORK Railroads already existed before the war The difference is the creation of a transcontinental railroad (all around the west coast) You have filled in the railroad network, partially in the east and west Because of that you were able to conduct businesses on a national level You can ship goods from place to place Sparked the creation of international time zones b. IMPROVED SPEED OF COMMUNICATION 1876, they invented the telephone You have not only got transportation, you have communication C. TECHNOLOGICAL INVENTIONS Many inventions!! The refrigerated railroad car (other goods across the country and safely) Steam engines drive early industrialization - These factors make it possible (ABC) - Electric Illuminating Company supplied electric current o Led to development of street cars o Buildings could go higher with electric elevators o Cities could spawn suburbs because of electric street cars 2. INDUSTRIAL/BUSINESS LEADERS You have to have people who build John Rockefeller (oil) JP Morgan (banking/financer) Andrew Carnegie (steel industry) - They have a vision on how to do things better - Whole lot of other people who build these institutions (whose names we do not remember) o The middle class moves into middle management position o They are going in and defining the institution (builds the intermediate institutions 3. GOVERNMENT AID Lassiez-faire: the notion that the government keeps its hand s off and everything just happens The system of government that upholds the autonomous character of the economic order believing that government should intervene as little as possible in the direction of economic affairs - Fundamentally misleading - American railroads would not have been built without the government - Government gives land for railroad building - State and federal gives money for railroads to be built - The federal and state government will frequently call out the troops to protect industrialists (also prevents intervention) th - The 14 amendment ignored 1. POWERFUL, CONCENTRATED ECONOMIC INSTIUTIONS Vertical and Horizontal innervation (look up) - Vertical: no competition; same owner for all the companies o Same owner for all steps of production - Horizontal: control the marketing; but has competition o Big company lowers price of goods to make smaller business fail and lead to them taking over - TRUST Problem solving Attempt to eliminate competition 2. FACTORIES Industrialization: the rise of the factory system - Employed hundreds of people - The size of the workforce doubles C. IMPLICATION OF NEW SYSTEM 1. LOSS OF INDPENDENCE AND OPPORTUNITY They see their lives now shaped by the reality of these institutions a. FOR INDUSTRIAL WORKERS There is a whole notion of economic dependency Difficult to accept b. FOR SMALL BUSINESSES AND FARMERS You also have a sense of loss of independence and opportunity Much more at the mercy of these institutions - Now have to compete with big business - Farmers are increasingly shipping crops by railroad that you do not have any control over - Farmers may not understand c. FOR COMMUNITIES If you’re a small town who wants to grow: - You have to have a railroad - You will have to convince the railroad company that your two needs it - Through much of the 19 century every community had its own time set to the sun - In 1883, the railroads get together and facilitate a time (standard time) - It is a vivid example of the changes - Also a loss of order Also a period of incredible disorder: 2. FINANCIAL INSTABILITY In this 15-year period you have three significant depressions It is a tough time to be a worker Relatively high employment Most workers were unemployed sometime during any given year Most of them worked incredibly long hours (12 hour day) Dangerous work place (35,000 killed) 1 and every 12 was hurt and many killed (in the railroad) 3. TRAMPS Because of the disorder tramps are developing 4. TOUGH TIME FOR WORKERS 5. LABOR UNREST Major strikes!! Tough time for workers that lead to labor unrest 6. BUT BENEFITS Rags- to -Riches There is a modercy of social mobility that will make the system work Moreover, this new industrial and business system does bring access to goods that they haven’t had beforth(fresh meat, and more fruits, popcorn - Late 19 century that the department stores been open - Catalog sales bring benefits - Will be living in a different world Jan 25 End of Chapter Review Second Industrial Revolution: The postwar economy was characterized by large-scale industrial development and a burgeoning agriculture sector. The Second Industrial Revolution was fueled by the creation of national transportation and communications systems, the use of electrical power, and the application of scientific research to industrial processes. The federal government encouraged growth by imposing high tariffs on imported products and granting the railroad company’s federal land. Rising Big Business: The leading entrepreneurs were extraordinarily skilled at organizing and controlling industry. John D. Rocketfeller eventually controlled nearly every facet of the oil industry, consolidation that control through trusts and holding companies. Andrew Carnegie, who believed that competition benefited both society and business, came to dominate the steel industry by buying struggling companies. J. Peirpont Morgan, an investment banker, not only controlled most of the nation’s railroads but also bought Carnegie’s steel interests in 1901, there by creating the nation’s first billion- dollar corporation. Labor Conditions and Organizations: The labor force was largely composed of unskilled workers, including recent immigrants and growing numbers of women and children. Some children as young as eight years of age worked twelve hours a day in coal mines and southern mills. In hard times, business owners cut wages without discounting the rents they charged for company housing or the prices they charged in company stores. Rising labor Unions: It was difficult for unskilled workers to organize effectively. Strikebreakers were plentiful because new immigrants were desperate for work. Business owners often had resource to state and local militias, which would be mobilized against strikers in the face of perceived anarchy. Craft unions made up of only skilled workers became more successful at organizing as the American Federation of Labor focused on concrete economic gains and better working conditions and avoided involvement in politics. Anarchism: belief that any government was itself an abusive device used by the rich and powerful to oppress and exploit the working poor (timeline and key terms on page 605) CHANGES IN AMERICAN SOCIETY By the 1890s you end up with a sense of crisis and concern The ability to conduct business in large-scale institutions with complicated operations A lot of people worry about their sense of independence II. IMIGRATION Part of a long cultural process A. CHANGES IN WHERE IMMIGRANTS ARE COMING FROM The first big wave of immigration was from 1820s to the 1920s You have a real shift of where the immigration comes from The push was agricultural change and over population in Europe By the 1880s immigration is coming from a different part of the world than it was before the civil war (coming to the US) They come in through port cities (particularly in New York) The appeal for immigrants is usually economics More of them are attracted to the growing industrial system and the jobs that the factories offered (economic pull) It was not an easy process - Sometimes people went back to the country they were born in - How do you describe this immigrant experience? - What are these people’s lives like? - How do they fit in? B. NATURE OF IMMIGRANT EXPERIENCE 1. MELTING POT? America is a place where people become one There is no difference between race, ethnicity, ect. 2. ETHNIC COMMUNITIES Historians point to the creation and persistence of ethnic communities A lot of Italians, Spanish and other ethnic people will live in the same communities with their particular race They did try to learn English and all of that but they persisted in their own communities Chain migration: one person immigrates to America and tells others to come join them B. IMPLICATIONS What differences? Long term: Immigration creates a much more diverse nation There were contributions of cultures that will have an impact in America The workforce of industrializing was made up of immigrants Short term: Sets off a lot of fears for Americans For workers: job competition Middle class: fear of three yards - Race, religion, rebellion - Race: they worried that all of these immigrants are somehow going to undermine the racial purity in America - Religion: the US was an overwhelming protestant culture o When you start getting immigration, many of them were Catholics o You also have increasing numbers of Jewish immigrants as well o Thus, sparking protestant Americans - Rebellion: there was a fear that these immigrants were bringing radical political ideals (communism and socialism) - which were against capitalism Socialism: A theory or system of social organization based on the holding of most property in common, with actual ownership ascribed to the workers. Communism: system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, with actual ownership ascribed to the community or state. There is rejection of free markets and extreme distrust of Capitalism in any form. III. URBAN GROWTH You simply have a lot more people, living in a lot more cities Why? A. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS Industrialization (need more workers) Immigration Transportation - Horse drawn car - You have a horse drawn car and eventually you have the street car - They expand how big the city can be (you do not have to walk) B. CHARACTERISTICS (2) Cities are getting bigger and more populists Cities not only get bigger they get economically and racially stratified - They like to live in a space with trees and grass (only have to cut grass) - The street cars also have crossing lanes - You can get around the city pretty easily - Increasingly inner cities are being dominated by immigrants (don’t have the money) - Cities are racially segregated - Still have people coming in through the cities C. PROBLEMS 1. OVERCROWDING Massive immigration in to the inner cities End up with overcrowding 3. GARBAGE AND SANITATION Cities smelled and looked bad Chicago most of the building still had outdoor plumbing In one block there was three bathtubs Most cities still had horses (tend to go to the bathroom in the streets) - Pooper scooper were not yet invented - Attracted 6 billion flies 4. CORRUPTION—MUNICIPAL BOSS A system became known as municipal boss A lot of the cities had one political figure organized the whole city (down to the black level) These bosses made sure they stayed in power Middle class taxpaying citizen: saw corruption Immigrant and working class: what seemed to be corruption to the middle class was a system that helped them with jobs and getting food 5. DISODER/IMMORALITY If you were a young woman or man you could go to the city and rent an apartment and get a job in the city For many young class Americans the absolute major symbol of the disorder was the saloon For a lot of immigrants and working class the saloon became a working mans club (a refugee) Middle class saw the saloon as danger (drinking) D. IMPLICATIONS IV. CLOSE OF WESTWARD EXPANSION Between California and the Mississippi river are the Indians A. REMOVAL OF THE INDIANS 1. RESERVATION SYSTEM An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a Native American tribe under the US Bureau of Indian Affairs, rather than the state governments of the United States Right after the war, give Canadian people land and they will control the lands Minimize tension because we wont be bothering earth other Tension between whites and Indians It does not work very well Lots of problems! Tough for Indian culture Promised goods or food, they became short because of the corruption They tended to be hunters and warriors - A large numbers of whites did not recognize the treaties - They would say” I do not care about the Indians” - What you have between the earlier days to the civil war is a series of wars
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