New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter One

by: Maggie Bruce

Chapter One BIO 1500

Maggie Bruce
GPA 3.86

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes are from the first week of class. The material is from chapter one in the book.
Basic Life Diversity
Thomas Dowling
Class Notes
Biology, evolution, scientific method, phylogenetic tree
25 ?




Popular in Basic Life Diversity

Popular in Biology

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maggie Bruce on Friday August 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1500 at Wayne State University taught by Thomas Dowling in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 192 views. For similar materials see Basic Life Diversity in Biology at Wayne State University.


Reviews for Chapter One


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/05/16
Bio 1500 Chapter 1  What is science? o General view  Organization of knowledge o Scientists View  Pursuit of knowledge  Scientific advancement requires active accumulation of knowledge  How does science advance? o Inductive reasoning  Deriving general principles from particular facts or instances  Ex.: Spontaneous generation (toads from muck; flies from spoiled meat)  Problems: Not always able to test, or recreate o Deductive reasoning  Conclusion follows from stated premises  Induction is used to generate hypothesis  Uses the scientific method/cycle  The scientific cycle o Hypothesis  Prediction  Test (get data) o Conclusion  Reject Accept  Examples of Deductive Reasoning o Francesco Redi, Spontaneous Generation  Hypothesis  Flies arise spontaneously from spoiled meat  Prediction  Maggots should arise from meat regardless of circumstances  Test  Place meat in sealed containers and watch for maggots  One open container, one gauze covered container, and one parchment covered container  Conclusion, maggots do n’t form on meat in covered containers  Oversimplification  Scientific process is usually more complex  Theories o Continual testing of a focused hypothesis (without rejection) results in acceptance of theories o A theory is not a highly tentative statement  Ex.: The heliocentric theory (the sun is the center of the solar system), all of our facts say this is true but it is possible that we are wrong  Questions o Descriptive questions  Describing a specific set of attributes, not the underlying processes  Ex.: What color is it? o Observational/Relational questions  Looks at the relationship between two or more variables  Ex.: How are they similar? o Causal questions  How or why things occur  Determines one or more variables cause or effect on outcomes  Ex.: Why does this happen?  Lead us to unifying ideas  Descriptive and observational questions are needed to come to causal questions  Biodiversity o Compilation of all various kinds of lifeforms on the planet  Origin of biodiversity o Creationism  Independent origins for each form of life, may allow for extinction or multiple episodes  Ex. o Transformism  Number of species remain constant, they just change  Ex. o Evolution  Inherited changed in populations of organisms leads to differences  Descent with modification  Ex.  Problems with creationism and transformism o Do not produce testable results  Evolution by natural selection o Darwin  Prediction: organisms evolve through selections of small changes, would expect to see intermediate structures  Classifications o A standardized system developed by Linnaeus o Binomial Nomenclature (in Latin) o Species  Genus, species (dog: canis familiaris)  Linnaean Classification o Hierarchial o Species o Genus (group of similar organisms that do not readily interbreed) o Family o Order o Class o Phylum o Kingdom  Goals of Linnaean System o Describe taxonomic relationship o Divided groups from a theological perspective o Species were described as types ignoring variation  Nomenclature now o Reflects evolutionary history o Shared evolved traits are used to make phylogenetic tree o The more closely related the taxa, the closer they will appear on the tree  Phylogenetic Tree o History of descent of a group of organisms from a common ancestor o Sequence of how organisms evolved o How traits evolved  How to interpret trees o Terms:  Tips: ends, observed taxa, usually living species or genes  Branches: represent distance or time to ancestor  Nodes: splitting points, extinct common ancestor  Root: node at base of tree, common ancestor of all taxa, oldest point of tree o Branching pattern is important o Orientation, node rotation, and branch shape are arbitrary


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.