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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maggie Bruce on Friday August 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1500 at Wayne State University taught by Thomas Dowling in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 192 views. For similar materials see Basic Life Diversity in Biology at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 08/05/16
Bio 1500 Chapter 1 What is science? o General view Organization of knowledge o Scientists View Pursuit of knowledge Scientific advancement requires active accumulation of knowledge How does science advance? o Inductive reasoning Deriving general principles from particular facts or instances Ex.: Spontaneous generation (toads from muck; flies from spoiled meat) Problems: Not always able to test, or recreate o Deductive reasoning Conclusion follows from stated premises Induction is used to generate hypothesis Uses the scientific method/cycle The scientific cycle o Hypothesis Prediction Test (get data) o Conclusion Reject Accept Examples of Deductive Reasoning o Francesco Redi, Spontaneous Generation Hypothesis Flies arise spontaneously from spoiled meat Prediction Maggots should arise from meat regardless of circumstances Test Place meat in sealed containers and watch for maggots One open container, one gauze covered container, and one parchment covered container Conclusion, maggots do n’t form on meat in covered containers Oversimplification Scientific process is usually more complex Theories o Continual testing of a focused hypothesis (without rejection) results in acceptance of theories o A theory is not a highly tentative statement Ex.: The heliocentric theory (the sun is the center of the solar system), all of our facts say this is true but it is possible that we are wrong Questions o Descriptive questions Describing a specific set of attributes, not the underlying processes Ex.: What color is it? o Observational/Relational questions Looks at the relationship between two or more variables Ex.: How are they similar? o Causal questions How or why things occur Determines one or more variables cause or effect on outcomes Ex.: Why does this happen? Lead us to unifying ideas Descriptive and observational questions are needed to come to causal questions Biodiversity o Compilation of all various kinds of lifeforms on the planet Origin of biodiversity o Creationism Independent origins for each form of life, may allow for extinction or multiple episodes Ex. o Transformism Number of species remain constant, they just change Ex. o Evolution Inherited changed in populations of organisms leads to differences Descent with modification Ex. Problems with creationism and transformism o Do not produce testable results Evolution by natural selection o Darwin Prediction: organisms evolve through selections of small changes, would expect to see intermediate structures Classifications o A standardized system developed by Linnaeus o Binomial Nomenclature (in Latin) o Species Genus, species (dog: canis familiaris) Linnaean Classification o Hierarchial o Species o Genus (group of similar organisms that do not readily interbreed) o Family o Order o Class o Phylum o Kingdom Goals of Linnaean System o Describe taxonomic relationship o Divided groups from a theological perspective o Species were described as types ignoring variation Nomenclature now o Reflects evolutionary history o Shared evolved traits are used to make phylogenetic tree o The more closely related the taxa, the closer they will appear on the tree Phylogenetic Tree o History of descent of a group of organisms from a common ancestor o Sequence of how organisms evolved o How traits evolved How to interpret trees o Terms: Tips: ends, observed taxa, usually living species or genes Branches: represent distance or time to ancestor Nodes: splitting points, extinct common ancestor Root: node at base of tree, common ancestor of all taxa, oldest point of tree o Branching pattern is important o Orientation, node rotation, and branch shape are arbitrary