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Personality Psychology: Chapter 2

by: Lei Raiza Zervoulakos

Personality Psychology: Chapter 2 PSYC 305A 001

Marketplace > Loyola Marymount University > Psychology (PSYC) > PSYC 305A 001 > Personality Psychology Chapter 2
Lei Raiza Zervoulakos
Loyola Marymount University
GPA 3.43

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Week 1 of notes
Personality Psychology
Prof. Ricardo Machon
Class Notes
Personality Psychology, assessment, research methods
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lei Raiza Zervoulakos on Friday August 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 305A 001 at Loyola Marymount University taught by Prof. Ricardo Machon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Personality Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Loyola Marymount University.


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Date Created: 08/05/16
Chapter 2: Personality Assessment, Measurement and Research Design Sunday, December 20, 7:58 PM Sources of Personality Data: 1. Self-report "S-Data" a. Information provided by the person i. Survey or interview 1) Unstructured items -- free to fill in the blanks a) "I am _____" 2) Structured items -- response options are provided a) "I am anxious." True or False b. Pros: Rich source of information, efficient c. Cons: People may not respond honestly, may lack accurate self-knowledge 2. Observer-report Data "O-Data" a. Sources of information i. Family/friend 1) Pros: often in better position to observe target's natural behaviors than professional personality assessors 2) Cons: relationship to target may be biased ii. Professional personality assessors b. Provide information that is not attainable through other sources Naturalistic Observation Artificial Observation Observers witness and record events that occur in the normal Occurs in artificial settings or situations c. course of lives of the participants Ex: family Has the advantage of being able to secure information in realistic Advantage of controlling conditions and eliciting relevant behavior but context at the cost of sacrificing realism 3. Test-Data "T-Data" a. A lot of test-data are self-report i. Example: 16 PF ii. Provided by standardized tests or testing situations 1) To see if different people behave differently in identical situations 2) Situation designed to elicit behaviors that serve as indicators of personality ("scored") iii. Cons:articipants might try to guess what trait is being measured and then alter their behavior to create certain impressions, difficult to know if participants define testing situation as intended by the experimenter, researcher might influence how participants behave (experimenter bias) b. Mechanical recording devices "Actometer" i. Used to assess children's activity ii. Pros:ot hampered by biases of human observer, may be used in naturalistic settings iii. Cons:ew personally dispositions lend themselves to mechanical assessment c. Physiological Data i. Person's level of arousal or reactivity to stimuli (potential indicators of personality) 1) Pros: difficult to fake responses 2) Cons: used in laboratory setting, accuracy of recording hinges on whether participant perceives situation as experiment intended ii. fMRI d. Projective Techniques i. Presented with ambiguous stimuli and asked to describe what she sees "projects personality onto ambiguous stimuli" 1) Rorschach Inkblot -- not being used anymore 2) TAT (Thematic Aperception Test) ii. Pros:ay provide useful means for gathering information (subjective) about wishes, desires, fantasies that a person is not aware of iii. Cons:ifficult to score, uncertain validity and reliability 4. Life-Outcome Data "L-Data" a. Different than the other 3 b. Independent c. Drawn from public records (publicly verifiable) d. Serves as an important source of "real life" information about personality Issues in Personality Assessment: - Establish links across from different sources ○ Patterns across the different sources and not rely on one source  Engage in the concept of "triangulation" □ To be more assured, that it is a valid and reliable statement - Fallibility of personality measurement ○ All sources have limitations ○ Results that replicate through triangulation = most powerful Evaluation of Personality Measures: 1. Reliability - "consistency" a. Repeatable?? i. Test-retest(self-explanatory) ii. Inter-rater 1) Multiple raters assessing the person's behavior (should be in agreement) Personality Psychology Page 1 1) Multiple raters assessing the person's behavior (should be in agreement) iii. Internal consistency 1) Cronbach's alpha (~0.65+) a) Average correlation between all the items in a scale corrected for error b) Do these items hang together? i) Responses should correlate with each other to measure the concept 2. Validity - "accuracy" a. Test measures what it claims to measure i. Face 1) Upon seeing the test you know what is being measured ii. Predictive or criterion 1) Make a prediction on behavior based on the score on a test iii. Convergent 1) Establish the fact that personality attributes that are supposed to correlate with each other in fact do a) Ex:same tests -- tests that measure the same concept should produce the same score iv. Discriminant 1) Establish attributes that are not correlated with each other a) Ex:tests that do not measure the same concept should not be correlated with each other v. Construct 1) Looking at the pattern from the existing 4 kinds of validity 2) Develop a human test to measure something that is theoretical a) Theoretical concepts 3. Generalizability a. Measure retains validity across different contexts, different groups of people and different conditions b. If tests are reliable and valid, should be generalizable too c. Greater generalizability is not always better -- what is important is to identify empirically contexts in which a measure is and is not applicable Research Designs in Personality: Experimental Methods Correlational Case Studies Studies Very rarely used in personality In-depth examination of the life of one person psychology Pro: - find out about personality in great detail - give insights into personality that can be used to formulate a more general theory that is tested on a larger sample - provide in-depth knowledge about an outstanding figure (i.e political or religious figure) Con: - results based on the study of single person cannot be generalized to others Personality Psychology Page 2


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