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ANT 208-Unit 3 Week 2 Lecture Notes

by: Stephanie Grates

ANT 208-Unit 3 Week 2 Lecture Notes ANT 208

Stephanie Grates
GPA 4.0
Anthropology of Sex
Dr. Lynn

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Week 2 of Unit 3. Week of March 9th.
Anthropology of Sex
Dr. Lynn
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Grates on Monday March 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 208 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Lynn in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 236 views. For similar materials see Anthropology of Sex in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 03/23/15
ANT 208 Unit 3 Week 2 0309 Sexual Differentiation the process by which the two sexes become different Testosterone is an antidepressant o What we will cover 0 Genetic gonadal and phenotypic sex 0 Organizational and activational effects of sex hormones o Anomalies resulting from breakdowns in these processes 0 The signi cant role of testosterone for males and females in these processes 0 The confusing role of hormones in sexual orientation 0 There are sex differences in the incidence of psychiatricneurological disorders based on developmental factors 0 How sex differences in the brain develop 0 Nature vs Nurture 0 Two ways to assess role of biological factors ie steroid hormones Animal experiments Naturally occurring experiments in humans 0 How do we become male or female 0 Genetic sex Mother XX Father XY Female XX Male XY 0311 Gonadal Sex 0 Y chromosome determines development of testes o Gonads are bipotential possibility to be ovaries or testes o SRY sex determining region on the Y gene on the Y chromosome encodes testisdetermining factor TDF 0 Without TDF ovaries develop 0 Activation of SRY that turns on development of testes Phenotypic Sex 0 Testes prenatally secrete Testosterone T 0 Alone doesn t do anything but can convert to something that does Antimullerian hormone AMH Stops productions of mullerian ducts o Ovary does not really secrete hormones until much later after birth 0 XX and XY have two sets of ducts Mullerian ducts Females Wolffian ducts o Males In males 0 AMH causes mullerian ducts to regress o T causes the growth of the wolffian ducts epididymis narrow tube in testes and holds sperm vas deferens tube that transports sperm away for ejaculation gets snipped in vasectomy and seminal vesicles structures leading from the testes to penis to deliver sperm In females 0 ln absence of AMH mullerian ducts develop into fallopian tubes uterus cervix and inner vagina o Wolffian ducts remain as timy remnants Testosterone critical to phenotypic male and female development 0 With T the genital skin develops into the penis and scrotum 0 Without T genital skins develops into clitoris and labia o DHT dihydrotestosterone ampli es Testosterone o 5alpha reductase synthase Sometimes things go wrong 0 Anomalies in geneticsex X0 Y0 no cases must be embryonic lethal XXY XYY XY 0 one chromosome from parent and none from the other 0 Turner s Syndrome X or XO 14000 live births only females ovaries do not develop short stature neuro problems often die in 205 low hairline wide nipples brown spots Tells you there may be sex linked traits or polygenic that can be controlled for in different places 0 Klinefelter s Syndrome XXY affects males 1500 live births gynecomastia small dick and balls long arms and legs breasts narrow shoulders female pubic hair wide hips mostly sterile Form of hermaphortisim inner sex Hermaphortisim is an ambiguous spectrum 0 There are many places where things can go wrong here too which results in anomalies in phenotypic sex Androgen lnsensitivity Syndrome AIS Genetic XY but looks XX Look act and think of themselves as female and develop breasts at puberty due to estrogenandrogen ratio this ratio usually determines femalemale ness Receptors don t read testosterone therefore even if way more testosterone will not be read so body think female 100 estrogen ratio then and quotuber femalequot so very exaggerated female characteristics large breasts hips lips etc Sometimes because of a mutation in egg not detected until puberty usually Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia CAH In females Enlarged adrenal glands at birth Hypothalamus controls hormones pituitary gland right next to it in brain Hypothalamus creates corticotrophic releasing hormone CRH when then releases adrenocorticotropic releasing hormone ACTH Hypothalamus CRH l pituitary ACTH l adrenal progesterone l androgen and cortisol l CRH or ACTH When cortisol level high enough will turn this system off usually but with CAH it does not turn off Causes an over production of testosterone lnnersex pseudohermaphortisism Can be corrected by administering cortisol at birth causes the negative feedback system to happen and stop process Dominican Republic Guevedoces quoteggs at 12 Middle Sex by Geoffrey Eugenides Result of recessive genetic trait that isn t going to be seen unless you are in a small gene pool lnbreeding culturally relative sex with mother father sibling rst cousin Inbreeding coefficient higher in small gene pools 5alpha reductase synthase de ciency syndrome turns testosterone into DHT Have female appearance develop as female internal as male during pubertal growth spurt teen years testes develop and drop at puberty develops penis and male type things raised as females until this happens and then they switch Still able to reproduce


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