Biopsych week 7
Biopsych week 7 PSY 3
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anahit Ghaltaghchyan on Friday August 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Psych 3-Biopsychology in Psychlogy at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 08/05/16
08/06/2016 ▯ 2 nd half ▯ Pathology and recovery ▯ Learning and memory ▯ Hunger and regulation ▯ Hormones and sex ▯ Sleep ▯ Addiction and rewind ▯ Lateralization and specialization ▯ Fear and stress ▯ Psychiatric disorder ▯ ▯ Pathology and recovery ▯ Or neuropathological disorders and plasticity ▯ ▯ Causes of brain damage ▯ Brain tumors ▯ Cerebrovascular disorder ▯ Closed head injuries ▯ Infections of the brain ▯ Neurotoxins ▯ Genetic factors ▯ ▯ Tumors ▯ Tumors (neoplasims) is amass of cells that grows independently of the rest of the body: a cancer ▯ 20% of brain tumors are meningiomas- that is, encased with meninges ▯ encapsulated: growing within their own membranes ▯ usually benign, surgically removes ▯ Don’t spread out into the brain tissue or whatnot ▯ Most brain tumors are infiltrating (not incapsulated) ▯ Grow diffusely through surrounding tissue ▯ Malignant difficult to remove or destroy ▯ About 10% of brain tumors are metastatic ▯ They originate elsewhere, usually the lungs ▯ ▯ Cerebrovascular disorder- disorder in blood supply to the brain ▯ Stroke: a sudden onset cerebrovascular event that causes brain damage ▯ Cerebral hemorrhage: bleeding in the body ▯ Cerebral ischemia: disruption of blood supply ▯ Stroke is the 3 leading cause of death in the US and the most common cause of adult disability ▯ ▯ Cerebral hemorrhage: blood vessels ruptures ▯ Aneurysm(not a physical property)Caused by aneurysm: a weakened point in a blood vessel that makes a stroke more likely. May be congenital (present at birth) or due to poison or infection ▯ Cerebral ischemia: disruption of blood supply ▯ Thrombosis: a plug forms in a blood vessel within the brain ▯ Embolism: a plug forms elsewhere and moves to the brain ▯ Arteriosclerosis: wall of blood vessels thicken, usually due to fat deposit ▯ Damage due to cerebral ischemia ▯ Does not develop immediately (1-2 days) ▯ Most damage is consequences of excess neurotransmitter release- especially glutamate ▯ Blood deprives neurons become overactive and release glutamate ▯ Glutamate(excitatory neurotransmitter) over activated NMDA receptors of post synaptic neurons, leading to an influx of sodium and calcium atoms (which are positive, makes the resting potential more positive) ▯ This depolarizes the neurons and eventually kills them! ▯ Killing one neuron releases that neuron to release more glutamate, cascading effect ▯ Closed head injuries ▯ Brain injuries due to blows that do not penetrate the skull: the brain collides with the skull ▯ Contrecoup injuries: contusions are often on the side of the brain opposite to the blow ▯ Contusions: closed head injuries that involve damage to the cerebral circulatory system: hematoma (bruise) forms ▯ Concussions: a disturbance of consciousness following a blow to the head and no evidence of structural damage. Change in cognitive state without any visible damage to the brain ▯ While there are no apparent brain damage with a single concussion, multiple concussions may result in a dementia referred to as “punch drunk syndrome” ▯ Currently the subject of a multi million dollar lawsuit against the NFL initiated by formed players ▯ Infections of the brain ▯ Encephalitis: brain inflammation resulting from an invasion of microorganisms ▯ Bacterial infections ▯ Often leads to abscesses (pocked of pus) ▯ May inflame meninges, creating meningitis ▯ Treat with penicillin and other antibiotics ▯ Viral infections ▯ Some preferentially attack neural tissues (Rabies) ▯ Some can lie dormant for years ▯ ▯ Neurotoxins ▯ Neurotoxins may enter general circulation from the gastrointestinal tract or lungs, through the skin ▯ Toxic psychosis: chronic insanity produced by neurotoxin th th ▯ The Mad Hatter: hat maker in 18 century and 19 century England often had toxic psychosis due to mercury exposure ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯
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