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Biology 101: Introduction to Life Science, Week 1 Notes

by: Mylan Siscar

Biology 101: Introduction to Life Science, Week 1 Notes BIO 101

Marketplace > Oakton Community College > Biology > BIO 101 > Biology 101 Introduction to Life Science Week 1 Notes
Mylan Siscar

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The textbook used in this class is Campbell Biology: Concepts and Connections, 8th edition. These notes cover Chapter 1, which is a general and brief description of everything that will be covered ...
Introduction to Life Science
Elaine Phillips
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mylan Siscar on Saturday August 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 101 at Oakton Community College taught by Elaine Phillips in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Life Science in Biology at Oakton Community College.


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Date Created: 08/06/16
August 23, 2016 Chapter 1-Levels of Biological Organization  Highest level to lowest level o Biosphere- all environments on Earth that support life. o Ecosystem- all organisms living and non-living physical components in a particular area. o Community- all organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem. o Population- all individuals of a species living in a specific area. o Organism- any living thing. o Organ System- Circulatory, Digestive, Nervous, Respiratory, Endocrine, Skeletal, Muscular, Integumentary, Lymphatic, Immune, Urinary, and Reproductive. o Organs- Liver, Stomach, etc. (Composed of tissues that perform a specific function) o Tissues- groups of cells that perform a specific function. o Cells- functional unit of life. o Organelles- sub-cellular structures that perform a specific function. o Molecules- made up of atoms held together by chemical bonds. o Atoms- smallest unit of matter. August 25, 2016  Cells o Functional units of life o They can:  Regulate its internal environment.  Take in and use energy.  Respond to its environment.  Develop and maintain a complex organization.  Give rise to new cells. o All cells have an enclosed membrane that regulates what goes into and out of a cell o All cells use DNA as their genetic information o There are two basic types of cells:  Prokaryotic (all bacteria, one-celled organisms)  They do not have organelles with a membrane.  Smaller than eukaryotic cells.  No true nucleus (no membrane around it).  Have genetic material (DNA) in an area called the nucleoid.  Some have a cell wall (animal cells do not have a cell wall).  Eukaryotic (all plants, animals, fungi, and protists)  Examples of protists are amoebas, euglena, etc.  Contain membrane-bounded organelles  True nucleus (have a membrane around it)  Plants o Produce their own food (Photosynthetic)  Consumers o Eat plants and other animals  Decomposers o Recycle, changing complex matter into simpler, mineral nutrients (bacteria)  Properties Common to All Living Organisms (how do we define something that is living?) o Order- The highly ordered structure of life o Regulation- Homeostasis, maintaining a constant internal environment; an ability to control an organism’s internal environment within limits that sustain life. o Growth and Development- Consistent growth and development controlled by inherited DNA. o Energy Processing- the use of chemical energy to power an organism’s activities and chemical activities. o Response to the Environment- An ability to respond to environmental stimuli. o Reproduction- The ability of an organism to reproduce their own kind. o Evolutionary Adaptation- adaptations evolve over many generations as individuals with traits best suited to their environment.  Three Domains of Life o Bacteria- unicellular, no true nucleus but nuclear material is in an area called the nucleoid, prokaryotic. o Archea- Live in extreme environment- bacteria, prokaryote. o Eukarya- Membrane-bounded nucleus- eukaryote; includes protists, fungi, plants, and animals.  The unity of life is based on DNA and a common genetic code o All cells have DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)  Genes  Unit of inheritance that transmits information from parent to offspring.  Are grouped into very long DNA molecules called chromosomes and control the activities of the cell.  Diversity of life arises from differences in DNA sequences.  Scientific Approach o To be scientific the method of inquiry is commonly based on empirical (based on observation or experience) or measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning  Science is a way of knowing.  Scientists use:  Deductive reasoning to come up with ways to test a hypothesis (flows from general premises to specific premises)  Inductive reasoning to draw conclusions from many observations (going from specific premises to general premises)  Discovery Science o Describes nature o Uses inductive reasoning o Derives general principles from a large number of specific information (i.e.: All organisms are made up of cells)  Hypothesis-Based Science o Uses hypothesis-educated guess o Uses deductive reasoning (i.e.: If all organisms are made up of cells and humans are organisms, then humans are composed of cells)  Science is a way of knowing and used to solve everyday problems: o Uses inductive reasoning to draw conclusions from many observations. o Uses deductive reasoning to come up with ways to test a hypothesis (a proposed explanation for a set of observations). o Proven hypothesis can become a theory. o Theory is supported by a large and usually growing body of evidence.  Controlled Experiment (2 Groups) o Experimental group contains the variable, that which is being tested. o Control group is the same as an experimental group, but there is no variable being tested.  Independent and Dependent Variables o Independent variable is what I can change.  Always on the X-Axis  Can be changed like color, kind, time. o Dependent variable is what I observe.  Always on the Y-Axis.  Possible outcome of the experiment. These values that result from the independent variables. o Controlled variable is what I keep the same.


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