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Chemistry 1212K, Week 1

by: Bethany B.

Chemistry 1212K, Week 1 CHEM 1212K

Marketplace > Georgia Gwinnett College > Chemistry > CHEM 1212K > Chemistry 1212K Week 1
Bethany B.

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Basic review of first semester of chemistry. Focus on reviewing the structures of elements and the ionic and covalent bonds that form between them.
Principles Chemistry II w/Lab
Omar Villanueva
Class Notes
General Chemistry




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bethany B. on Saturday August 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1212K at Georgia Gwinnett College taught by Omar Villanueva in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Principles Chemistry II w/Lab in Chemistry at Georgia Gwinnett College.


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Date Created: 08/06/16
8.17.16—8.19.16 Chemistry 1212K [Week 1] Review of Gen Chem 1 o Usingthe periodic table to findthe electronic configuration o For Calcium: [Ar]4s2  [Ar]: core electron  4: energy level (row)  s: orbital  2: number of valence electrons o Valence electrons—involvedinbonding,determines if youwill have anionor - cation;the number of outermoste in highestenergy level o For Gallium: [Ar]4s 3d 6p1  # valencee :3- o The number of valenceelectrons is equal to the column number for eachrow, except the transitionmetals. The valenceelectronsfor transitionmetals will vary and are determinedby the oxidation states. o Charges for Ions: o Cations are positive andusually metals  Column 1=+1, 2=+2, 3=+3, 4=+4 o Anions are negative  Column 5=-3, 6=-2, 7=-1 o The noble gases are neutral withacharge of 0 o Charge of transitionmetals determinedby oxidation states Chapter 9: ChemicalBonding I—The Lewis Model Why is this chapter important? –because everythingaroundus is composedof molecular bonds  The sulfur carbonbonds inour hair determine if youhave strait,curly,wavy hair. Good2Know: ionic bonds are very stable. (ex. Melting sugar is easy and produces caramel. Melting salt takes a lot more energy to brake the bonds.) 2 Major Types of Chemical Bonds:  Ionic Bonding—electrons are transferred o NaCl is ionic because sodiumgave anelectronto chlorine.  CovalentBonding –electrons are sharedequally Lewis DotConfigurations—dotsrepresentthe valence electrons forthe element  The “OctetRule”is that whenelements bondwithothers,they wantto have full outer shells. Anatom gains,loses,or shares electrons until its valence shell has eightelectrons.The noble gases have eightvalence electronsandthat represents afull outer shell. The Ionic Bond  Never representstructuresofionic bondswith LewisDotstructures! o Li + F = ionic because itis a bond betweenanonmetal and a metal. o Lithium lost an electronandbecame positive whilefluorinegains an electronandbecomes negative. The CovalentBond  Why shouldtwo atoms share electrons? o F2= F + F o Eachfluorine has sevenvalence electrons andwhenthey bondtogether, they eachshare the seventhelectronso their outer shells are full. o Electrons thatare notthe two bondingelectrons are called“lone pairs”. o Bonds are drawnas aline betweenthe two atoms.  Lewis structure of water:H—1valence electron,O—6valence electrons;total of 8 electrons inmolecule o Hydrogenonly forms one bond (it can only have two electrons)and doesn’tfollow the octetrule.Because of this,itgoes onthe outside with oxygenin the middle. o H—O—H (Oxygen has two dots aboveandtwo below) 2


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