Week one notes: Chapter 1: History
Week one notes: Chapter 1: History 1004
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by rachel kelliher on Sunday August 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1004 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Benjamin DeVore in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 08/07/16
[PP 1: Intro to Psychology- 8/25/2016] ~Psychological science Definition: study of behavior and brain processes o Many different fields and many different professions o Behavior experts, psychophysics, brain injuries, brain functions, perceptual psych Goals of physc- focus is on behavior- better understand it to modify and “control” behavior Tools: o Scientific method- observation, problem ID, hypth, experiment, theory formulation To be a good psych you have to be a good observer- just like any other scientist Examples: Chemo treatment Observation= depression goes hand and hand with chemo and having cancer Theory- serotonin blockers are part of the chemo treatment-> decrease serotonin which leads to depression o One of the goal of psych- ID, test and break theories Why study pysch? o IDing fact vs fiction in media Little certainty in most statements- want a little bit of facts/ evidence in statements Example) Atlanta Times and Nuke codes Article said that men and that members of military are the only ones that should have codes BUT.. o They only asked men and members of the military thou- no women or civilians asked o NOT A GOOD EXPERIMENT The only type of test that enables us to confer causality= experimental design o Research methods Appropriate designs- must have an experimental design Ex) Atlanta ex from above Replication- must be able to get the same results over and over at different labs, and done by differnet groups/ experts Methods and treatments must have scientific support Ex) crawl therapy- children that did not crawl as much were more likely to develop psychotherapy – findings were never replicated outside of that lab o Psychotherapy: the treatment of mental disorder by psychological rather than medical means. Control groups- must have base line to compare test group too Ex) super male syndrome- really angry dudes- more angry then the normal male. Why? XYY- extra Y o What was wrong? Experts went out and tried to find children with the gene and see if they eventually matched the stereotype- NO CONTROL GROUP Must have a control group to determine what outside factors may or may not impact it o How decisions are made in behavioral sciences Make probability statements- never exactly right Significant findings (95% sure)= majority of the findings All based off of stats Nobel prizes- will study close to 30 in this course Why? A bunch of pysch. have discovered and solved a lot of the mysteries of the brain New findings are always coming out that change the way that psych. Think about conditions and treat patients o Citizen quality- ethics and behavior Behavioral control- 1936: Delgado stops a charging bull with a remote stimulation o Delgado knew that there were certain brain circuits that controlled anger and that he could stimulate those circuits with his remote to stop the attack- inhabited the right section of the brain and pacified the attack Cloning & Steam cells: what are appropriate experiments to do? What are appropriate uses Understanding social factors Kitty Genovese- the rape and murder story: no one reported it o BYSTANDER EFFECT- birth of psych study of bystander effect When there is more people involved in something/ around you think that you don’t have to do anything about what is going on- “someone else will do it” Bio basics of behavior Organic or psychological – what is do to genetics? What is due to mental processes o Almost all pysch conditions has psych, chemical, and biological factors o All evidence shows that psychological is biological History o Don’t need to know: o Need too know: Mind body controversy Soul= mind) syno. In this course Explanation free will: o In science- there is no free will- brain stimulation controls actions o Free will= exist in philosophy Philosophical doctrine- your philosophy determines what you see and how you perceive what you are seeing (people with 2 different philosophies may see same thing and think to different things) o Monism: body and environment Aristotle and Hippocrates and Galen= examples A) mind is form that substance body takes G) smart physician- had access to roman gladiators- could study the effects that brain injuries had on the gladiators and their actions- how the different parts of the brain worked and how their absence/ injury o New that the brain impacted actions Science= monistic approach o Dualism: body and maybe soul o Interactionism: mind and soul that interacts with the body when it comes to free will Not an issue in psych- can’t study the soul o Must localize the issue Localization brain and behavior History o Discovery of the use of electricity and the brain Bartholow- 1874: worked with Mary Rafferty- stimulated left side of her brain with electricity and say the distinct reaction of the muscles on the right side of the body Delgado cat experiment- lifted left hind leg in response to electrical stimuli Right side of the brain controls Left side and the left side of the brain controls right side of the body o Penfield: 1950s- mapped the sensory and motor cortices of human patients during epilepsy surgery Cerebral cortex of man- clinical study of localization of function o More dudes Lametire- man the machine Tortured by catholic church- not the only pysch/ scientist o Pope apologized in 1997 Descartes- father of psychophysiology Paid by the church- did not try to study that didn’t have to do anything with free will BUT knew that we had to study human behavior o Got church to agree with him and was able to do research Discovered Pinal body- back of brain stem- had access to men who died in religious wars o The first lab- Germany with Wilhelm Wundt His school= structuralism o Emphasized introspection Subject matter= experience- objective Basis for sci inquiry= repetitive, control and systematic results- not really the case with this idea Downfall 44,000 elements of consciousness- not exact Not directly observable- based all of what the patient reported o Brought to US by Titchener ~The Brain Motor and Sensory cortex. o Motor= anterior (frontal lobe) and sensory (parietal lobe)= posterior o As you move inferiorly down the lobes you move superiorly up the body in the body part that is control Ie) top of motor/ sensory= feet while bottom part (closest to auditory cortex)= face/lips Auditory cortex= temporal lobe o Broca’s area= speech center- produces speech Frontal lobe o Wernicke’s area- language comprehension Dominant temporal lobe Occipital lobe= sight & right sides= left eye and left side= left eye Left brain= logic brain o Looks at things in pieces and then puts them together o Verbal process center o Logic= left Right brain= stupid brain/ creative brain o Visual process center and looks at the whole picture then the details o Nonverbal/ thinking area