Research Methods Chapter 1 Notes
Research Methods Chapter 1 Notes PSYC 314
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Makenzie Hooper on Sunday August 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 314 at Towson University taught by Brianna Stinebaugh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Towson University.
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Date Created: 08/07/16
Research Methods Study Guide Exam 1 Chapter 1 I. Intro 1. Psychology a. Scientific study of cognition, emotions, and behavior. 1879- Psychology’s birthday Philosophy is the root of Psychology Wundt created psychology and the first research lab by using the 3 main tools of the research method. b. Pseudoscience- anything that appears scientific, but does not use the scientific method. 2. Science a. Content Factual knowledge/ information b. Process Understanding of the content and how data is collected to get the facts 3. Research Methods a. All starts with research 4. Scientific Method a. Unbiased data 5. Common sense psychology a. Every day, non-scientific data gathering Works most of the time Can create biased results Data is gathered through non-scientific sources Media, celebrities, friends Results in non-scientific inference Not tested because we trust the sources. 6. Non-Scientific Inferences a. Assign traits to people Assume traits in one setting will stay the same in other settings b. Stereotypes Often not true c. Use data to estimate true probability of events happening Non-scientific data II. Scientific Method 1. 7 characteristics a. Scientific mentality of determinism Expect a natural order of events b. Gather empirical data Observable Experience it Can support or not support c. Seeking general principles Create an original hypothesis to support Find principles about people to follow and create guidelines If we formulate guidelines that are accurate, then we have a law. Laws are rare, theories are more common because they are easier to update. d. Good thinking Be objective and open minded; rational Follow a systematic system Avoid opinions and personal beliefs Confirmation biased- looking only for support to the bias. Relates to research because it can influence the data and alter results. e. Self-correction Look at new research and compare to your own f. Publication Share data with others g. Replication Need to repeat to get same results; validation III. 4 Objectives of Psychology Studies 1. Description a. Want to describe in detail everything involved in the study before you begin the study. b. Systematic, unbiased ways of recording all the observations c. When writing your study, it must be clear and detailed 2. Prediction a. Hypothesis- based on prior research b. Others should be able to look at your research to make their own hypothesis and predict behavior 3. Explanation a. Able to explain a behavior in order to know the cause Antecedents- circumstances before a behavior occurs 4. Control a. Want/need control over all aspects of the study b. Apply this first IV. 2 Types of Research 1. Applied research a. Set up study to get results to apply to the populations 2. Basic research a. Set up a study built off od past studies and knowledge Most common V. Publication of Findings 1. APA a. American Psychological Association 2. APS a. Associations for Psychological Studies VI. 3 Main Tools of the Scientific Method 1. Must be set up in place before beginning a study 2. Approved by the review board a. Observations Systematic way of recording data b. Measurements Need a specific way of measuring data Use statistics to analyze results c. Experimentations Specific research design Testing hypothesis VII. Antecedents 1. Circumstances that cause a behavior 2. Each antecedent chosen will be assigned a treatment condition 3. Treat participants differently in each treatment condition to see if different behaviors occur.
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