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by: Leah Moore

Tester MSCI 101 006

Leah Moore

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The Ocean Environment
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leah Moore on Monday August 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MSCI 101 006 at University of South Carolina taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 08/08/16
Ms. Leah Moore 11 Bioregional Sound Frequency Fish Netting to Prevent Bycatch for Commercial Fisheries Environmental Technology Commercialization Plan The Frequency Fisher is a sound frequency warning device installed on commercial sized fishing nets. The concept of bioregional fishing is used assuming the definition of clarifying areas according to the wildlife that inhabit the region. The Frequency Fisher will be used by commercial fisheries and will significantly reduce the accidental catch of unintended species by large fishing companies. 2 Executive Summary Commercial fisheries face a problem known as bycatch each time they board boats to catch their intended species. This issue of bycatch is defined as ‘a species unintentionally caught while fishing for another species’ (Restrepo). To give an example of the urgency of this problem to be addressed, ‘for every one pound of shrimp caught, ten pounds of other marine life are thrown away’ (Danson). A probable and realistic solution would be the Frequency Fisher, a bioregional sound frequency fish netting to prevent bycatch. To break this plan down is simple. The word bioregional is defined as ‘an area constituting a natural ecological community with characteristic flora, fauna, and environmental conditions and bounded by natural rather than artificial borders’ (The Free Dictionary). For the sake of this solution, the plan only uses the emphasis of that definition on the wildlife in an area. The proposed solution means that for certain regions in which animals that frequently fall to fishing companies are currently residing (due to migration patterns, etc.), fishing nets with sound frequency warning devices will be used as an alternative to regular fishing nets. Bycatch is a problem that could easily be prevented with the proper ideas and solutions. This product, called the Frequency Fisher, would be an excellent answer to the problems within commercial fisheries. Problem Statement and Proposed Solution Bycatch is a problem in which commercial fisheries accidentally catch a species other than the intended catch. This problem is not only wasteful, but harmful to ocean ecosystems. Bycatch is unnecessary death of species crucial to the ocean environment. Also, bycatch is an issue that could be prevented. The widespread issue of bycatch will be solved by sound frequency fish nets created to repel a certain species within the desired area for commercial fishing of an alternative species. The market opportunities are high, because commercial fisheries no longer have to dispose of unwanted species, and more of the fisheries’ desired catch would be in the nets. The Frequency Fisher would also be beneficial to ocean ecosystems worldwide. Summary of STEM Concepts & Principles Underlying the Overall Plan The unwanted fish or other marine species caught during commercial fishing for another species is arguably the world’s largest example of collateral damage. This is called ‘bycatch’. Many precautions have been experimented with and taken, such as the use of pingers on gillnets which repel larger animals such as porpoises. Pingers are small, acoustic devices that send off short blast pings that tell porpoises that they are approaching a net. By law, Northeastern fishermen are now required to secure these pingers to their gillnets prior to releasing the nets into water (Sacks). However, many different types of fishing nets exist, so while this has helped dramatically reduce the porpoise bycatch for this particular net, arguably many more steps need to be taken. The devastating loss of all of these marine animals is a large problem that could drastically change with this solution, called the Frequency Fisher: bioregional sound frequency fish netting. To break this concept down, each word will be described. ‘Bioregional’, simply, means splitting regions according to the life that is there. A prime example of when the Frequency Fisher would be used would be when discussing the bycatch of mako sharks. Mako sharks often become collateral damage on big fishing boats because their migration patterns almost directly correlate with the patterns of swordfish, a highly desirable fish (Chambers). This puts makos at an incredibly high risk of being accidently caught and wasted. Using Frequency Fishers in the areas of those overlapping migration patterns could significantly reduce the unintentional catching of mako sharks. ‘Sound frequency’ means that devices similar to the pingers described above will be installed on every type of fishing net. The sound devices 3 will release vibrations that repel the unwanted marine creatures such as sharks, whales, bottlenose dolphins, and sea turtles. ‘Fish netting’ is exactly as it sounds, meaning simple nets. With the use of Frequency Fishers, bycatch could face a solution not only for one species, but for all of oceans worldwide. Science principles and ideas would be used in the execution of this plan because overlaps between bycatch species’ habitats and species desired by commercial fisheries would need to be thoroughly studied by employees in various fields, such as oceanography, ecology, and animal behavior. Frequencies that repel each individual species that falls to bycatch would also need to be discovered and differentiated. Also, studies need to be done on the possible attraction to these sound emitters. For example, the pingers already placed on multiple gillnets effectively repel cetaceans (for example porpoises), but they attract more pinnipeds (for example sea lions). In addition, scientists would need to experiment to determine how often the Frequency Fisher sound devices would occur on the custom fish net. This could take several trials because is crucial to have the perfect amount of sound frequency emitted into the oceans to effectively repel and warn the species without harming the intended animals. The technology behind this plan is extensive and difficult. Effective installation of the sound frequency devices would be determined by technicians. Sound frequency technology that is persistent in emissions would need to be perfected. Lastly, a material that would effectively allow the waves out and also be able to withstand extensive amount of pressure would need to be decided on. Many materials that make this possible already exist, but cheap versus best options would need to be figured out. The engineering involved in this concept mainly consists of an effective design for the sound frequency device. Many nets are already in existence today, so engineers would need to create a highly successful, yet as small as possible device. Mathematics would be involved due to the study of how far the sound waves would travel versus their intensity at close ranges. This will help scientists to know how far apart to place the devices on the net, and also how far out the waves will radiate, which therefore tells of their effectiveness. Studies of wavelength and frequency will invoke the scientists and mathematicians involved to work together to perfect the Frequency Fisher. Problem Statement The problem is bycatch, which is ‘a species unintentionally caught while fishing for another species’ (Restrepo). The Frequency Fisher has a major market opportunity because it will greatly decrease the waste of valuable animal lives and greatly benefit ocean ecosystems. Proposed Solution The proposed solution is bioregional sound frequency fish netting to prevent bycatch for commercial fisheries. STEM Concepts in Proposed Solution Science is used in determining overlaps between common bycatch species and highly desired fish. Technology resources are utilized to create efficient sound frequency devices to properly repel the intended species. Engineering strategies are used to create the smallest, yet most effective product. Math techniques are applied to study the range of the sound waves. 4 Intended Target Customers Target customers for the Frequency Fisher would be large commercial fishing companies. Intended users would be those actually working on the boats of the commercial fisheries. Competitors Competitors would be buyers of simple fishing nets, due to their cheapness. Also, companies that install pingers to repel cetaceans would be a large competitor due to a similarity in product. Customer Value and Competitive Advantage Customer value is incredibly high because commercial fisheries that commonly catch unwanted prey will no longer have to sort between their waste and their product. This gives the Frequency Fisher a competitive advantage because the companies can select the species that they want to repel, and then more of their catch will be their intended species. Revenue Streams Each product sold would provide a one-time revenue. A payment plan could be set up, which would make the revenue for this product arrive in increments. To give a general idea of cost, a standard purse-seine net costs $270 (Beach Seines…). Depending on the cost of technology, the Frequency Fisher could cost anywhere between $350- $500. Startup and Operating Costs According to the U.S Small Business Administration, the average startup company costs about $30,000 (Beesley). However, this product is not intended as a startup company. The intended selling is for companies that already sell fishing nets to purchase the rights to sell these nets. Commercialization Assessment of Plan An issue known as ‘bycatch’ is highly present in the planet’s fished oceans. Bycatch is commonly defined as a species accidentally caught while fishing for another species. For example, ‘for every 1 pound of shrimp caught, up to 10 pounds of marine life is thrown away’ (Danson). This problem needs attention due to all of the wasted marine animals’ lives that could still be useful to our ocean ecosystems. It is crucial to find a solution because of the multiple species decreasing in number within the oceans and being wasted. The proposed solution is called ‘Bioregional Sound Frequency Fish Netting’, named the Frequency Fisher. This creation, while appearing complex at first, would not only be practical, it would be effective at reducing the widespread loss of marine species oceanwide. This concept, in general, could be summarized as selected frequency waves emitted by devices installed onto fishing nets to repel a particular species that often falls as collateral damage to fisheries catching nearby animals. The Frequency Fisher is a probable solution because it isn’t too far-fetched, it is supported by scientific evidence, it would benefit the ocean environment in so many ways, and it would greatly ease the pressures placed on the large commercial fishing companies. Fisheries would most likely not mind paying the price if it meant a safer, more profitable way of fishing. 5 The intended target customers would be commercial fisheries that use any type of netting. This vast industry will enjoy no longer being burdened by the task of having to dispose of the accidentally caught marine life. These companies would have more of their intended catch inside their nets, and underneath the waves, the ecosystems would be much less destructed. This idea is new and unique, but it would not place a monopoly on fishing businesses. Pinger selling companies already in existence would be a large competitor (these devices will be more thoroughly explained in mile 11). However, the Frequency Fisher is more diverse. Pingers are only placesd on gillnets, whereas these nets with devices would be created for several different kinds of fish netting (more on different kinds of nets in mile 11). Also, pingers have been found to only repel cetaceans, such as dolphins and porpoises; they actually attract animals such as sea lions (Sacks). The sound frequency fishing devices on every kind of net would greatly reduce all widespread bycatch for each targeted bycatch species, not just species that happen upon gillnets. Net manufacturers that do not include the sound wave repelling devices would also be seen as a large competitor due to their cheaper nets. However, the Frequency Fisher is a better solution and investment because each fishery would catch more of what they’re in the market for, and therefore make more money. Sound frequency fish netting devices are a more practical and beneficial plan for every fishery. This extremely advantageous product will benefit the customers in very important ways. The value of the Frequency Fisher is very high because it not only improves life for the customers, it improves the profit margin. The life of the customers would be more at ease because with these nets, the companies would have a significantly smaller need to handle unwanted species within their nets. Also, the profit margin would increase for the fisheries, because as explained earlier, the companies are able to catch a larger amount of their intended species. These benefits will bring more business and attention to the proposed product. The total revenue of the Frequency Fisher is difficult to estimate. These nets will be as affordable as possible, seeing as the general goal is to restore the oceans back to their natural health, and conserve the flourishing ocean ecosystems. Revenue would depend on cost to manufacture, selling price, and how widely purchased the product becomes. However, a range of $350- $500 for each net is a realistic range due to the regular net pricing mentioned above. Operating and startup costs could potentially become steep. A key way to avoid this would be to first release a net with devices that sends waves to repel mako sharks. Then, if that net is widely purchased by fisheries that commonly see mako sharks in their nets, the business could create nets targeting other species to repel. This would bring costs down initially, and then operating costs could run off of revenue. The commercial feasibility of the Frequency Fisher is very high. The market for this product is nearly guaranteed to sell well, due to the problems that this will solve. The possible benefits that commercial fisheries could see out of sound frequency netting will make this product highly commercially feasible. Science and Technology Proof of Concept In the oceans of the world, commercial fisheries venture out each day to catch a desired species to sell for profit. A common issue within this practice is known as bycatch. Bycatch is ‘a species unintentionally caught while fishing for another species’ (Restrepo). Devices attempting to solve the bycatch problem are researched, explored, and explained below, and proof of why the proposed solution would be effective is also shown. A widespread probable solution would be bioregional sound frequency fish netting to prevent bycatch, a product called the Frequency Fisher. This solution will have the abilities to effectively repel targeted species which often interfere with fishing practices without permanently harming the species or their ecosystem. 6 Figure 1 "Turtle Excluder Device." FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture - Fishing Equipment. FAO. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. Pictured above in Figure 1 is an invention known as the “Turtle Excluder Device”, or TED. These devices have cut sea turtle bycatch by an estimated 97% (Danson). Every American shrimp trawler is required by law to have turtle excluder devices (Danson). Incredible successes like these make the overall bycatch issue seem lesser, but every species of sea turtle in the US is still endangered (Roberts). This serves as an example of a fishing device that was embraced, utilized, and formed into a law due to its beneficial effects. This provides evidence of potential for the Frequency Fisher. Seen below, in Figure 2, is a visual of the many types of fishing nets used in the ocean to catch particular species. Each net has a different intended use, sometimes even for an intended species. For example, purse- seine nets are primarily used to catch tuna. However, that type of net is infamous for the amount of dolphins caught along with it, an estimated 1,000 dolphins/year (Perrin). This makes it the largest documented cetacean bycatch in the world (Perrin). Simply for this exact type of net. Purse- seine nets are used particularly for fish that travel in schools. This makes it highly problematic for dolphins- not only do they travel in schools, they also love tune, which happen to travel in schools. Just imagine the problems that could be solved if purse-seine nets were created with devices that emitted sound waves to simply provide caution that a net was approaching, and temporarily send them out of the path of destruction. Casualties would be majorly reduced. 7 Figure 2 (from page 6) Andrei, Mihai. "Insightful and Beautiful Infographics from Oceana." ZME Science. 31 Aug. 2011. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. Table 1 G, Lauren. "How to Eat Seafood Responsibly (Part One)." The Educated Eater. Blogspot, 8 June 2010. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. As seen in Table 1, several types of fishing nets are used. This supports Figure 2, which shows visuals of each type of fishing net. This chart has been included to show how often each kind of fishing net is used. Figure 3 Sacks, Hallie. "Porpoise Bycatch Prevented with Proper Pinger Use." NOAA Fisheries. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. An example of the use of acoustic devices to repel an animal is highly present in the strategy to attach pingers (pingers are small, acoustic devices that send off short blast pings that tell porpoises that they are approaching a net) to gillnets, which are used to effectively deter cetaceans from running into these nets. However, a large flaw in the use of these pingers is that pinnipeds (ex. seals) are attracted to these acoustic waves (Sacks). This problem could be solved by attaching a pinniped deterring device in 8 increments alternating with the use of the anti-cetacean pingers. With the Frequency Fisher, this flaw could be quickly and efficiently fixed. Figure 4 Chambers, Jim. "Atlantic Hot Spots." Atlantic Hot Spots. Big Marine Fish. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. Figure 5 Carey, Teresa. "What's an Ocean Gyre?" Sail Magazine. 1 Nov. 2012. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. Figures 4 and 5 are to show fishing in relation to migration patterns. Figure 4 shows adult swordfish migration patterns, and figure 5 shows mako shark migration patterns. A strong overlap is seen, surrounding the North Atlantic Gyre. ‘Makos appear to be more at risk because their patterns of migration parallel those of commercially desirable swordfish’ (Peachin). These figures were included to place emphasis on the previously mentioned idea of creating a mako shark repelling net with devices installed to prevent the unintentional catch of this species. 9 Figure 6 "Lecture 13." Lecture 13. AQFI. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. Figure 7 "Technology - Shark Shield." Shark Shield. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. Figures 6 and 7 are visuals to explain the extent of a shark’s senses. Figure 6 shows a simple idea of the amount of senses on the front region of a shark. Figure 7 shows how far a shark’s senses really carry. Observe that a shark can hear something irregular up to several kilometers away. This proves that a shark would be able to respond to the repelling devices on the fishing nets. Figure 8 below is a sketched image of relatively what the Frequency Fisher would look like as a net. The sketch is of a purse- seine net, which was mentioned and described above. The darkened ovals are the sound wave frequency emitters that would warn the intended species of the approaching net. 10 The Frequency Fisher could greatly reduce bycatch in the oceans of the world. Significant evidence proves that the utilization of this creation could potentially change the high levels of marine life being wasted. Acknowledgements The person who has been most crucial to the development of my idea and product is Mrs. Kochensparger. She has been prepared with constructive criticism through out the process. I thank her for being prepared to answer questions and tell me what is necessary and unnecessary as I tackled a challenging and ambitious goal. Also, both of my grandparents patiently listened to my plan and asked questions. This was very helpful because they don’t know huge amounts about my topic, so they asked questions that needed to be addressed in my report in order to increase clarity on my topic. Thank you to them for being patient as I rambled on and on about my product and how beneficial the Frequency Fisher would be. References Cited "BEACH SEINES- PRICES AND ORDERING." Currie Beach Seines- Prices and Ordering. Web. 12 Feb. 2015. "Bioregional." The Free Dictionary. Farlex. Web. 9 Feb. 2015. "Lecture 13." Lecture 13. AQFI. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. "Technology - Shark Shield." Shark Shield. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. "Turtle Excluder Device." FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture - Fishing Equipment. FAO. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. Andrei, Mihai. "Insightful and Beautiful Infographics from Oceana." ZME Science. 31 Aug. 2011. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. Beesley, Caron. "How to Estimate the Cost of Starting a Business from Scratch." U.S. Small Business Administration. SBA, 21 Nov. 2011. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. Carey, Teresa. "What's an Ocean Gyre?" Sail Magazine. 1 Nov. 2012. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. Chambers, Jim. "Atlantic Hot Spots." Atlantic Hot Spots. Big Marine Fish. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. 11 Danson, Ted, and Michael Orso. Oceana: Our Endangered Oceans and What We Can Do to Save Them. New York: Rodale, 2011. Print. G, Lauren. "How to Eat Seafood Responsibly (Part One)." The Educated Eater. Blogspot, 8 June 2010. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. Magiera, Ewa. "World Nearing 3% of Ocean Protection." IUCN. 24 Oct. 2013. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. Peachin, Mary L. The Complete Idiot's Guide to Sharks. Indianapolis, IN: Alpha, 2003. Print. Perrin, W.F., B. Wursig, and J.G.M. Thewissen. "The Tuna- Dolphin Issue." NOAA Fisheries. SWFSC. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. Restrepo, Victor, and Laurent Dagorn. "Defining Bycatch – International Seafood Sustainability Foundation." Defining Bycatch- International Seafood Sustainability Foundation. 30 Aug. 2011. Web. 9 Feb. 2015. Roberts, Callum. The Ocean of Life: The Fate of Man and the Sea. New York: Viking, 2012. Print. Sacks, Hallie. "Porpoise Bycatch Prevented with Proper Pinger Use." NOAA Fisheries. Web. 10 Feb. 2015.


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