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by: gncraun
GPA 3.4

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Unit Trng/Warfighting Function
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by gncraun on Monday August 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MSL 3010 at Western Michigan University taught by Ryder in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Unit Trng/Warfighting Function in ARMY - Military Science at Western Michigan University.

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Date Created: 08/08/16
T 835 om-94 OFFICIAL TEST METHOD – 1994 ' 1994 TAPPI The information and data contained in this document were prepared by a technical committee of the Association. The committee and the Association assume no liability or responsibility in connection with the use of such information or data, including but not limited to any liability or responsibility under patent, copyright, or trade secret laws. The user is responsible for determining that this document is the most recent edition published. Water absorption of corrugating medium: water drop absorption test 1. Scope and summary 1.1 The water absorptivity of corrugating medium is measured by dropping a drop of water on the surface of a specimen and determining the time in seconds for the drop to be completely absorbed as evidenced by the loss of sheen. 1.2 This method is applicable to corrugating medium as it is commercially produced by all processes. It is generally applicable to relatively unsized (water leaf) containerboards. It may not be applicable to more highly sized boards or to grades produced in different grammage (basis weight) than those normally used in corrugating medium. 2. Significance The absorptivity of corrugating medium must be controlled to some extent in order that it has the proper receptivity to the corrugating adhesive, which is an aqueous suspension of starch, for proper adhesion in the corrugating process. A test for absorptivity is necessary for control. The absorptivity may also relate to the way the medium can be steamed by the showers on the singlefacer and by the preconditioner. 3. Apparatus and materials 3.1 Burette, syringe or dropper, which will deliver 20 – 1 drops/cm of distilled or deionized water. 3.2 Rack or ring stand, to support test specimen. 3.3 Distilled water or deionized water, pH 6.5 to 7.5, 23.0 – 1.0°C (73.4 – 1.8°F). 3.4 Stopwatch or timer. 4. Sampling and test specimens 4.1 Select sample according to TAPPI T 400 “Sampling and A ccepting a Single Lot of Paper, Paperboard, Containerboard, or Related Product.” 4.2 Condition according to TAPPI T 402 “Standard Conditioning and Testing Atmospheres for Paper, Board, Pulp Handsheets, and Related Products.” Conduct test in atmosphere corresponding to TAPPI T 402. 4.3 From each test unit of the sample, select at least ten specimens. 4.4 Determine the felt and wire side of each specimen. If desirable, make a small mark identifying the wire side. 5. Procedure 5.1 Place the specimen on a rack or ring so that its lower side is not in contact with a solid surface. Approved by the Chemical Properties Committee of the Process and Product Quality Division TAPPI T 835 om-94 Water absorption of corrugating medium: water drop absorption test / 2 5.2 Position the burette or dropper 25 mm (approximately 1 inch.) above the top surface of the specimen. 5.3 Fill the burette, syringe or dropper with distilled or deionized water. 5.4 Drop a drop of water on the upper surface of the specimen and immediately start the stopwatch or timer. 5.5 Record the time in seconds for the drop to be absorbed into the specimen as noted by the visual observation of the gloss disappearing from the surface. 6. Report For each test unit, report as the test result the average time for complete absorption of the drop into thrfce for ten test specimens. Also report the penetration time for each test specimen. 7. Precision 7.1 The precision of this method was determined by a round-robin evaluation of this and several other methods by eight laboratories on samples of corrugating medium from eight different mills made by a variety of processes with a wide range of absorptivity levels. Tests were made both before and after aging. 7.2 The following estimates of precision are based on these results. 7.2.1 Repeatability = 13% of average according to definitions of TAPPI T 1206 “Precision Statement for Test Methods.” 7.2.2 Reproducibility = 75% of average, computed from the Coefficient of Variation, as described in TAPPI T 1206 "Precision Statement for Test Methods." 8. Additional information 8.1 Effective date of issue: August 10,1994. 8.2 Three alternate methods which can be performed in the same general time period with equal repeatability are also described below. They do not give the same numerical results, but, in general, will rank the materials in the same order as the preferred method. 8.2.1 An alternate procedure which is particularly useful in a corrugating plant for measuring the water absorptivity of corrugating medium as it is being used is TAPPI T 831 “Water Absorption of Corrugating Medium: Water Drop Penetration Test.” 8.2.2 Another alternate procedure, which was formerly the preferred procedure, is TAPPI T 819 “Water Absorption of Corrugating Medium: Boat Method,” which is now a Classical Method. 8.2.3 Another alternate procedure, which is particularly useful for measuring the water absorptivity of corrugating medium, is TAPPI T 832 “Water Absorption of Corrugating Medium: Float Curl Method.” 8.3 When making this water absorptivity test, the pH of the water should be checked periodically to assure it does not drift outside the acceptable range. Varying pH can have an effect on the test results. A. Appendix A.1 Artificial aging A.1.1 The absorptivity of corrugating medium has been known to change markedly, usually decreasing (an increase in absorption time) with aging. Usually this change will be greatest during the first day or days after manufacture. Therefore, to compensate for those expected changes, many mills induce artificial aging as part of their off-machine control testing of absorptivity. Usually some form of elevated temperature co tistes the artificial aging process. A.1.2 Some possible conditions are: 1/2, 2, or 7 h at 105°C (221°F); 15 min at 190°C (374°F) (this is designed strictly for an off-machine test at the time of manufacture). A.1.3 One laboratory found that 2-8 h at 105°C (221°F) gave aging equivalent to one month under natural conditions. A.1.4 There is good indication that the aging effect is due to oxidation. One laboratory reported that samples from the outside layers of a roll had increased in absorption time 25-fold, while the inner layers were unchanged in a 10- month storage. A.1.5 One laboratory found a close relationship of aging with the amount of alcohol benzene extractives in the medium. If these materials are as described in TAPPI T 204 “Solvent Extractives of Wood and Pulp,” aging could 3 / Water absorption of corrugating medium: water drop absorption test T 835 om-94 indeed be an oxidation, a chemical reaction. Using the general rule of thumb for acceleration of a chemicae larction, the aging time could be halved by increasing the temperature by 10°C. A.1.6 A 1991 study by the Institute of Paper Science and Technology on complete absorption water drop aging, found an average aging increase of 600% (from 15 to 90 seconds) when 7 different mediums were retested after 2 months of aging, in roll form. The retests were made from samples taken 2 in. down inside the roll. The same study showed an average increase of 1200% (180 seconds) when after 4 months, the rolls were cut down another 2 in., and retested! The seven different mediums were selected to represent the wide variety of mediums that are presently commercially available, including recycled. A.1.7 Other water absorptivity tests also showed increases in water resistance with aging; however, they were not as sensitive to aging as the complete absorption water drop test. For example, using the same seven mediums, the study showed that the percentage increases for the boat float method were 475% after 2 months and 1025% after 4 months. The float curl was even less sensitive, with increases of 333% and 933% after 2 and 4 months of aging. The water strike through test was the least sensitive of all, with increases o4f00% and 600% after 2 and 4 months of aging! A.2 Alternate Procedures A.2.1 An alternate procedure which is particularly useful in a corrugating plant for measuring the water absorptivity of corrugating medium as it is being used is the Float Curl Test. This procedure is being balloted as a separate method under CA 890308.06. Your comments and suggestions on this procedure are earnestly requestedand should be sent to the TAPPI Technical Divisions Administrator. 


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