Week 2 Notes
Popular in Intro Sociology
Popular in Sociology
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Jacobson on Monday August 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SYG 1000 at Florida State University taught by Andrew latinsky in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Intro Sociology in Sociology at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 08/08/16
Quantitative & Qualitative Research Tuesday, July 5, 2016 12:32 PM Quantitative Research - involves the analysis of numerical data typically obtained from the administration of surveys and experiments Descriptive statistics describe the group they belong to Inferential statistics rely on data from small groups to speculate on the behavior of larger groups Population: a collection of all humans living in a particular area of interest Sampling: a sample is a representative portion of the overall population Random- a randomly selected portion of the population. Ideal but often difficult Stratified- an attempt to recreate a population by creating a proportion as a sample. Most ideal but complicated Convenience- as the name implies, a sample chosen for convenience, the most common type of sample Types of experiments: laboratory, natural, field Surveys: descriptive and explanatory Qualitative Research - a scientific method that does not require statistical methods for collecting and reporting data Observations and open-ended questions are 2 examples Capture descriptive information Observational Research - watching listening to and recording what takes place in a natural setting over time Most common: participant(inside), non-participant observations (outside) and ethnography Ethnography- more exhaustive, about what a group of people do; the creation of an account of what a group of people do and the way they live Interviews - more than one person: focus group Formal, semi-formal, informal Secondary Data Analysis Refers to re-analyzing data that has been previously collected and analyzed Historical comparative analysis Contrast how different historical events and conditions in various societies led to different societal outcomes Content analysis The systematic and objective analysis of the content of cultural artifacts Issues in social research Wednesday, July 6, 2016 12:31 PM Reliability Involves the degree to which a given measure produces the same results time after time Concern is with consistency Validity Involves whether a researcher is measuring what he/she claims to be Concern is accuracy Ethics Right and wrong, the choices people make, and how they justify them Physical and psychological harm Culture - encompasses the ideas, values, and material objects that allow a group, even an entire society, to carry out their collective lives in relative order and harmony Reaffirms rules governing behavior and established the boundaries of a group who shares that culture Material Culture - encompasses the artifacts that are reflections or physical manifestations of culture. Ex: school Nonmaterial culture - consists of the ideas attitudes and beliefs of a society Ex: social expectations of students Values are the general and abstract standards defining what a group or society considers good right just and proper - and by definition what is considered bad wrong unjust and improper Broadest elements of culture - expresses a societies ideals Norms are rules that guide what people do and how they live Formal norms: established written rules of a society Ex: laws Informal norms: casual behaviors and expectations that are generally conformed to Reinforced through sanctions; which can be positive or negative Folkways: norms that are relatively unimportant and carry few sanctions Mores: important norms whose violation is met with a severe negative sanction Culture and Structure Thursday, July 7, 2016 12:30 PM Symbols are a large part of a culture Ideal culture: what the norms and values of society lead us to think people should believe and do Ex: high fashion Real culture: what people actually think and do in their everyday lives Subculture: a group of people who accepts most of the dominant culture but are set apart from it by one or more culturally significant characteristic Subcultures can be grouped by interest, entertainment, fashion, vocabulary, or lifestyle Counterculture: a group of people who are set apart from the dominant culture and their norms and values are incompatible with it. Their actions may be in direct opposition to those of the dominant culture Every counterculture is a subculture but not every subculture is a counterculture. Culture wars - a conflict between a subculture or counterculture and the dominant culture Can also refer to conflicts between dominant groups who differ on ideology Culture wars sometimes lead to the disruption of the social, economic, and political status quo. Cultural relativism - refers to the idea that aspects of culture need to be understood within the context of the culture within which they occur Ethnocentrism - refers to the belief that the cultural practices and ideas of ones own culture are superior to those of other cultures Practicing ethnocentrism can act as a barrier to cultural understanding Multiculturism: an environment in which cultural differences are accepted and appreciated by the majority and dominant group --- ideal culture Assimilation: a form of adaptation to dominant culture by minority and subordinate groups ---real culture Identity Politics: refers to any groups use of power to strengthen their social position Often involves tactics used by the minority group when the dominant group is unwilling to accept them High culture has tended to be those practices and activities associated with societal elites, seen as the product of artists or skilled professionals, and thought of as aesthetically rich Low culture has been associated with the practices and activities of the masses and is viewed as lacking in redeeming aesthetic qualities Socialization Friday, July 8, 2016 12:35 PM Nature vs Nurture The primary concern for sociologists is that of the individual in general The "nature" argument suggests that behavior is purely from natural instinct. The "nurture" argument suggests that humanness is based on the way we are socialized by others. As such, learning is the key to being human The reality is: both are critically important, but sociologists bias towards nurture. Socialization is the process through which people are taught to be proficient members of a society. Self: a person's distinct identity that is developed through social interaction Socialization as a result is a form of trained empathy, wherein one predicts others responses to their behavior. Starts in childhood and continues through life Agents of socialization are those who do the socializing Ex: family, peers, educators, mentors Development of self Human development relies heavily on interaction an dis process of learning how to use symbols and meaning to effectively communicate and transmit culture Charles Horton Cooley The looking glass self Our self-image reflects how others respond to us We only develop a self concept by interacting with others Dramaturgy: social life is a series of dramatic performances Impression management: when people interact with others they use a variety of techniques to control the image that they want to project Front stage: the social performance is designed to define the situation for those observing it Back stage: people express themselves in ways that are suppressed in the front Status refers to a positon within a social system that someone occupies Ascribed status: social status a person is assigned at birth or assumed involuntarily later in life. Ex: royal lineage, gender Achieved status: a social positon that a person can acquire on the basis of merit. Ex: occupation, education Master status: a status that tends to dominate one's social identity, can be ascribed or achieved. Ex: female, white, student Role: what is expected of someone who occupies a given status Role conflict: conflict between or among the roles corresponding to 2 or more statuses held by one individual Resocialization is the process of unlearning old behaviors and norms and learning new behaviors and norms Adult socialization Increasing numbers of workers change jobs and even careers with increasing frequency A total institution is a closed, all-encompassing place of residence that is set off from the rest of society Ex: prison, military
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