BIO GENETICS INTRO WEEK ONE NOTES
BIO GENETICS INTRO WEEK ONE NOTES BIO325 - Genetics
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Arti Patel on Monday August 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO325 - Genetics at DePaul University taught by Dr. Gilliland in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at DePaul University.
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Date Created: 08/08/16
Bio Genetics 260 Lecture 1 March 28 Chapter 1 What is Genetics? “The branch of biology that deals with heredity especially the mechanisms of heredity transmission and the variation…..” -Plant and animal breeding - Human genome project - Gene markers for diseases - Framework for all of Biology -Transmission Genetics (mostly discussed in class) - Molecular Genetics - Population Genetics Charles Darwin- Evolution by the process of natural selection Mendel – genes are particulate and not blending; would have solved Darwin’s problems Model Organism Drosophila melanogaster E coli Roundworm Arabidopsis Thaliana Rat/Mouse Saccharomyces Germline vs. Soma Sperm and Egg – Zygote Chapter 3 “A tiger is an eggs way of making another egg” You are a result of successful reproduction What allowed Mendel to succeed? His approach Looked at sharply contrasting features Focused on one character at a time Multiple generations Counted progeny to work out patterns Pea Plant (Pisum Satirum ) True breeding varieties to choose from Several things in his favor Controlled matings Reciprocal crosses Multiple generations Lots of progeny Delicious peas Terminology Character – some feature we can measure or describe Trait – How the organism appears or how the character is expressed Gene – A region of DNA that determines a character Locus – Place on a chromosome where gene is located Alleles – Alternative form of a gene Genotype – The set of alleles possessed by an individual Phenotype – Set of traits of an individual Homozygote – Individual with two of the same allele Heterozygote – Individual with two differing alleles What did Mendel Do? He collected true breeding strains Green vs yellow peas Smooth vs wrinkled peas He verified that these were true breeding Then he crossed the strains One of his first experiments: Crossed round peas with wrinkled peas Blending – half wrinkled peas Parental generation (P) – round x wrinkled First generation (F1) – all round Self-fertilized the first generation Second generation (F2) – both round and wrinkled - 5474 Round peas - 1850 Wrinkled - 3:1 Ratio ( For every one wrinkle, three round peas) -Mendel showed that traits can pass through generations -Showed that there is a 3:1 ratio in the second generation Digression into Probability -Random events happen and can say something about -Different types of events -“or” means it is a mutually exclusive event so you add the results -“and” means it is an independent event so you multiply the events. You can also have permutations (1,2) (2,1). So multiply independent events and the add the exclusive events -The sum of all odds add up to 1 - Roll 2 dice, probability of atleast one six? - Prob (6) – 1/6 - 1 die is a 6, 2 nd die is a six, or both are a six st - 1 roll 1/6 = 6 - 2ndroll (5/6) x (1/6) = 5/36 - Add both rolls (6/36) + (5/36) = 11/36 Mean (average): -Sum of (odds of events times value of events) Toss coin- #of heads ½ X 1(H) + ½ +0(T) 100 Tosses= 50 Heads 1/6 X 1 + 1/6 X2 + 1/6 X 3 + 1/6 X 4 + 1/6 X 5 + 1/6 X 6= 3.5 Variance: spread of values