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PSY220 Week 1

by: Ebony Cox

PSY220 Week 1 PSY 220 -004

Ebony Cox
GPA 3.6
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About this Document

These notes are covering Chapter 1.
Ronda Carol Talley
Class Notes
theories, Psychology, developmental psychology





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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ebony Cox on Tuesday August 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 220 -004 at Western Kentucky University taught by Ronda Carol Talley in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.


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Date Created: 08/09/16
Week 1 notes : 08/22­24 Developmental Psychology  *Lifespan development­ a diverse and growing field with broad focus and wide applicability. It  covers the entire lifespan of an individual from birth to death as it examines the ways in which  people develop physically, intellectually, and socially. Answers questions of how people change  and remain the same over their year of life. I. Nature vs. Nurture A. Louise Brown = test tube baby who had a baby the natural way. B. Specialists concern: understanding growth and change that occur  during life.  1. Topical Areas in Lifespan development a) Physical development­ the body’s  makeup; brain, nervous system, muscles, and senses, and the  need for food, drink, and sleep helps determine behavior b) Cognitive development­ how growth  and change in intellectual capabilities influenced a person's  behavior.  c) Personality development­study of  stability and change in the characteristics that differentiate one  person from another over a lifespan.  d) Social development­the way in  which individuals interactions and relationships with others grow,  change, and remain stable over the course of life.        2. Age Ranges and individual(s) differences  ­The Prenatal period: from conception to birth ­ Infancy and toddlerhood: birth to three ­Preschool period: ­Middle Childhood (Ages 6 to 12) ­Adolescence ( Ages 12­20) ­Young adulthood (Ages 20­40) ­Middle Adulthood (Ages 40­60) ­Late Adulthood (Ages 60­death) ­ Social construction­ shared notion of reality that is widely accepted but  is a function of society and culture at a given time.        3. Cohort and Other Influences on development developing with others in a social world. ­Cohort: a group of people born around the same times in which they live.  Age­graded influences: biological and environmental influences that are similar for  individuals in particular age group, regardless of when or where they’re raised.  Sociocultural­graded influences: the social and cultural factors present at a particular  time for particular individuals depending on variables such as ethnicity, social class, and  subcultural membership. Ex: different from white kid vs non white and one living in a high class neighborhood and the other living in poverty. Non­Normative: life events are specific atypical events that occur in a particular person’s life at a time when such events do not happen to most people.  Ex: child’s parents died at age 6 in a car accident. II.  Key issues and questions: determining the nature and nurture of lifespan development  A. Continuous change vs. Discontinuous change a. Continuous change ­ development is gradual with achievements a tone level building on those previous levels b. Discontinuous change: occurring in distinct stages c. Critical period: specific time during development when a particular  event has its greatest consequences. d. Sensitive periods: organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environment. e. Nature to traits, abilities, and capabilities in influences that shape  behavior is called maturing; parents. f. Nurture: environmental changes that have influenced them.      B.   Theories allow developmentalists theories for summarize and observe prior  observations and they allow them to move beyond existing observations to draw deductions that may be immediately apparent.  a. Psychoanalytical theory­ unconscious is a part of the personality about which a  person is unaware. b. Personality: id (raw, unorganized, in born part of personality that is presented at  birth), represents certain drives like hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses.  Operates according to the pleasure principle. Ego (the part of personality that is  rationally and reasonable.) Operates off “reality principle” Superego (person's  conscience incorporating between rights and wrong. Develops from age 5 or 6 is learned from parents, teachers, and other significant figures.  c. Psychosexual development­ occurs as children pass through distinct stages in  which pleasure or gratification is focused on a particular biological function and body  part.  d. Phallic Stage and Genital Stage (genitals) Mouth Stage (oral) Anus stage (Anus) e. Psychosocial development encompasses changes in our interactions with  understandings of one another as well as in our knowledge. f. Behavioral Perspective­ keys to understanding development are observable and  environmental stimuli. g. Classical conditioning­ when organisms learn to respond in a particular way to a  neutral stimulus.  h. Operant conditioning: a form of learning in which a voluntary response is  strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative consequences.  i. Automatic­ ex: salivating  j. Operate­ ex: learning their environment k. Behavior modification: formal techniques for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones.  l. Social cognitive learning theory ­ approach that emphasizes learning by  observing behavior of someone else called model. m. Cognitive perspective­ process that allows people to know and understand, and  think about the world. n. Piaget’s Theory: All people pass through fixed sequences of universal stages of  cognitive development­ not only in quantity to information, but the quality of knowledge  and understanding changes as well.   


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