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Biology 105 (Week One Notes)

by: Priscilla Lopez

Biology 105 (Week One Notes) BIOL 105

Marketplace > Humboldt State University > Biology > BIOL 105 > Biology 105 Week One Notes
Priscilla Lopez
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About this Document

These notes cover: Bacteria, Energy Transfer, Evolution, and the Scientific Method
Principles of Biology
Brigitte Blackman
Class Notes
Biology, Bacteria, evolution, Energy




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Priscilla Lopez on Tuesday August 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 105 at Humboldt State University taught by Brigitte Blackman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Humboldt State University.


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Date Created: 08/09/16
Biology 105 Professor: Brigitte Blackman CRN: 43667 MWF Lecture 9:00-9:50 First Priscilla L. Exploring Life and Science What Is Biology? ● Biology is the scientific study of life. ● Life defies a simple, one-sentence definition ● Life is recognized by what living things do Characteristics Shared by Living Organisms ● Organized from the atom to the biosphere ● Materials and energy from the environment ● Reproduction ● Growth and Development ● Maintain a relatively constant internal environment (homeostasis) ● Responds to internal and external stimuli ● Evolutionary history through which organisms change over time. How Are Organism Classified? ● Phylogenetic (Tree of Life) ○ Splits into three groups: ■ Bacteria ■ Archaea ■ Eurkarya The Three Domains In Life ● Organisms are divided into three domains ● Bacteria & Archaea = prokaryotes ● Most Prokaryotes are single-celled and microscophic Archaea ● 1970’s Carl Woese was the one who discovered it. ● Archaebacteria but then redefined as a Domain Archaea ● Doesn’t look different then normal bacteria ● They are found in Extreme conditions. Ex. Volcanic hot springs yellowstone. ● But they aren’t found diverse environment - Soils, marshlands, oceans (plankton) and human gut Eukarya 1 ● Eukaryotic Organisms ● Includes Three multicellular Kingdoms ○ Plants - Produce their own food by photosynthesis ○ Fungi - Absorb Nutrients ○ Animals - Ingest their food Euglena ● Euglena is a genus of single celled flagellate Eukaryote ● A Protist ● Is used extensively as a Model Organism Protists ● Protoza ○ Animal-like (heterotrophic) protists that have different structures for movement. Ex. (paramcium, amoeba) ● Algae ○ Plant-like (autotrophic) that have different structures for movement. Ex.(euglena) ● Disease Causing ○ Ex. Giardia lamblia (Giardiasis), Plasmodium falciparum (malaria), Trypanosoma brucei (sleeping sickness) Q) Which of the following properties or processes do we associate with living things? Answer: E. Evolutionary Adaptations, Energy processing, Responding to the environment and Growth and Reproduction. Evolution: The Overarching Theme In Biology ● Evolution makes sense of everything we know about Biology. ● Unity and diversity in living organisms ● Adaptations to the environment Life Requires Energy Transfer and Transformation ● A fundamental characteristic of living organisms is their use of energy to carry out life’s activities ● Work, including moving, growing, and reproducing, requires a source of energy ● Living organisms transform energy from one form to another ○ For ex. Light energy is converted to chemical energy, then kinetic energy 2 Q) Energy Transfer Like jackrabbits, elephants have many blood vessels in their ears that help them cool their bodies by radiating heat. Which of the following statements about this radiated energy would be accurate? ● Answer: A) The original source of the energy was the sun. Energy Flows Through The Ecosystem ● Sunlight comes in ○ Producers absorb light energy and transform it into chemical energy. ■ Then into chemical energy ● Chemical energy in food is transferred from plants to consumers. ● A plants cells use chemical energy to do work such as growing new leaves. ○ An animal's muscle cells convert chemical energy from food to kinetic energy of motion. ■ When energy is used to do work, some energy is converted to thermal energy, which is lost as heat. Structure Structure = Function ● Wings ● Bones ● Neurons ● Mitochondria Q) What is the lowest level of biological organization that can perform all the activities required for life? Answer: B) Cell - for ex. A skin cell The Continuity of Life is Based on Heritable Information in the Form Of DNA 3 ● Central Dogma: DNA to RNA to Protein ○ Transcription to Translation ● DNA is the substance of genes ● Genes are the units of inheritance ● The ability of cells to divide is the basis of all reproduction, growth, and repair of multicellular organisms What Do We Know About Science? ● Science is a way of knowing about the natural world. ● Science and scientists should be objective. ● Scientific conclusions may change or be modified as our understanding and technology increase. ● Science is studied using the scientific method. The Scientific Method ● In studying nature, scientists make observations and then form and test hypotheses ● The word science is derived from latin and means (to Know) ● Inquiry is the search for information and explanation. ● Scientific process = making observations, forming logical hypotheses, and testing them. Sir Francis Brown ● (1561-1626) is credited with being the first to define the scientific method. 4


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