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Accounting 1010, Week 1

by: Kate Dygas

Accounting 1010, Week 1 ACCT 1010

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Kate Dygas

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Foundations of Accounting
Susanne Freeland
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Dygas on Tuesday August 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ACCT 1010 at Ohio University taught by Susanne Freeland in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 67 views.


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Date Created: 08/09/16
Kate Dygas 25 July 2016  Informative Speech Outline Topic: Introductory to Music Theory: The Basics   Specific Purpose: To inform my audience the fundamentals of the basics of music theory Central Idea: To have an idea of introductory to music theory, you must know the basics—the  staff, clefs, and ledger lines, note rhythm, and time signatures I.  Introduction A.  (Attention Getter): “Music is a moral law. It gives soul to the universe, wings to the  mind, flight to the imagination, and charm and gaiety to life and to everything.” This quote is from one of the most influential authors in the history of philosophy, according to the  Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. His name was Plato. B.  (Reveal your topic): Today I will talk about the basics of music theory and help you  identify rhythm notation and time signatures. C.  (Establish Credibility): I first was introduced to music in the fifth grade, and have been  closely pursuing it ever since. Since then, I’ve participated in community orchestras, talented  programs, ensembles, and music theory classes. D.  (Relevancy Statement): In today’s world, music is everywhere. There isn’t a town, city,  or backroad that has not experienced the soundwaves or beat of music. Music can be best  described as the voice to the soul—a way to express yourself when words fail. Knowing the  basics of music theory allows one to compose, arrange, and even harmonize measures to their liking. E.  (Preview of Main Points): The bare essentials of music theory are: a. The staff, clefs, and ledger lines b. Note rhythm c. Time signatures TRANSITION: Let’s begin with understanding the staff, clefs, and ledger lines. II.  Body A.  (First main point): The staff, clefs, and ledger lines are the foundation of writing notes 1.  The staff is where notes are drawn and comprehended.     A)  It is composed of five lines and four spaces. Each line or space represents a note  and/or key on the instrument of choice. Most people refer to the piano. B) However, we can’t tell what note is being represented on the staff. We use clefs to  determine this, which brings me to my next point. 2.  Clefs help determine what note is being played/represented A) The two clefs that are most commonly used are the Treble and Bass clef. The  treble clef is also referred to as the G clef. If we place a note on the middle line, it  is known as B. One space above, and it would be a C. It is continued from the  letters A and G. B) According to Mark Feezall, author of Music Theory Fundamentals, the treble clef  is known as it is because the swivel circles the designated note name G C) The Bass clef is also known as the F clef. The line between the two dots is known  as F. One space below, and the note would be an E.  3.  Ledger lines are used when you have used up all the note places on the staff. A) Once you’ve reached the letter G on the staff in treble clef, you can extend the  staff by adding another line. It doesn’t have to be as long as the other staff lines,  but can be as little as the next note, A. B)  The same can be said in the bass clef. Once you’ve reached the space that holds  letter B, add a ledger line, and continue the process when needed.    TRANSITION: Now that we’ve covered the foundations, let’s continue to note notation B. (Second main point): Notes can have a duration ranging from 4 beats to 1/16 beats. It all depends on the note. 1.  A whole note has the longest note duration in modern music A)  A whole note is an oval shaped note that’s shaded in the middle, making it look  like an eye. Most notes are referenced to the whole note when determining their note  duration. B) The half note is half of the duration as the whole note. It looks like the whole note at a 45­degree angle to the right with a stem. There are two half notes in a whole  note.       2.  The quarter note is a fourth of the whole note A) The quarter note looks exactly like the half note, but shaded all the way in B)  Two quarter notes are the same as one half note, and four quarter notes is the  same as a whole note 3.  Anything that has a duration less than a quarter note have flags. A) Each flag on the note halves the value of it. For example, a quarter note with one  flag is an eighth note. There are two eighth notes in a quarter note. B)  A sixteenth note has two flags. Two sixteenth notes equal an eighth note, and four sixteenth notes equal a quarter note. TRANSITION: Now that we know our note values, let’s continue to time signatures. C.  (Third main point): Measures and time signatures tells how the notes will be counted 1.  Bar lines separate the staff into measures, or as Jono Kornfeld says it, “bars”. A)  They are divided by vertical lines that go through all five lines in the staff B) Now we can determine how many beats are in a measure with a time signature 2.  Time signatures determine many things in a measure A) Time signatures have two notes—one on top, and one on the bottom B)  The bottom number is the note that gets the beat within the measure, and the top  number is how many of those beats are in the measure  3.  Here are some examples: A) Let’s take a look at the time signature 4/4. The four on the bottom means the  quarter note gets the beat within the measure. The four on top means there are  four quarter notes in a measure. The same would be said for ¾, but instead of four beats in a measure, there’s three. B)  Let’s take a look at a non­quarter time signature. 6/8 time means there are six  eighth notes inside the measure, with an eighth note getting the beat.       TRANSITION: We have gone through the basics of music theory. Let’s just recap what we’ve  learned. III.  Conclusion 1.  Summary of main points: These basic music theories are the foundations of composing  and perfecting music that has been, and will be created. A. The staff, clefs, and ledger lines are where notes are placed, B. Note rhythms hold the length of the music, C. and time signatures create the beat of a song. 2.  Memorable Close/Clincher: The next time you listen closely to your favorite song or  band, remember that all the notes, measures, and harmonies fit together with a little help  from music theory. References (Proper APA Format) Richard, K. R. (2015). Plato: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford, CA: The Metaphysics Research Lab. Feezell, M. F. (2011). Music Theory Fundamentals: High­Yield Music Theory, Vol. 1. Richardson, TX: Learn Music Theory. Note Duration. Retrieved from Kornfeld, J. K. (2005). Music Notation and Theory for Intelligent Beginners. New York, NY: Artwork.    


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