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Chapter 1 -- Introduction to Data Communications

by: Lindsey Notetaker

Chapter 1 -- Introduction to Data Communications 4477

Marketplace > University of Houston > Management Information Systems > 4477 > Chapter 1 Introduction to Data Communications
Lindsey Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes cover the material in chapter 1.
Network and Security Infrastructure
Jake Messinger
Class Notes
data, Commnications, networks, Network, LAN, WAN, OSI
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Tuesday August 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 4477 at University of Houston taught by Jake Messinger in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Network and Security Infrastructure in Management Information Systems at University of Houston.


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Date Created: 08/09/16
Chapter 1 Notes Data Communications Networks  Data Communications—the movement of computer information from one point to another by meals of electrical or optical transmission systems o Such systems called data communications networks o Telecommunications—broader term; includes transmission of voice and video as well as data and usually implies longer distances. Components of a Network  Three basic hardware components for a data communications network: o Server—personal computer, mainframe o Client—personal computer, terminal o Circuit—cable, modem  Server—stores data or software that can be accessed by the clients. o File Server—stores data and software that can be used by computers on the network o Print Server—connected to a printer; manages all printing requests from the clients on the network o Web Server—stores documents and graphics that can be accessed from any Web browser, such as Internet Explorer.  Can respond to requests form computers on this network or any computer on the Internet o Servers are usually personal computers but may be minicomputers or mainframes.  Client—the input-output hardware device at the user’s end of a communication circuit o Provides the user with access to the network and the data and software on the server  Circuit—the pathway through which the messages travel o Typically a copper wire, although fiber-optic cable and wireless transmission are becoming common  Router—a special device that connects two or more networks. Types of Networks Four types of networks:  Local Area Networks (LANs) o Small general area, such as one floor or work area, a single building, or a group of buildings o Provide high-speed data transmission – 100 Mbps  Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs)  Backbone Networks (BNs) o Central network connecting several LANs, other BNs, MANs, or WANs o Span from hundreds of feet to several miles o Provide very high-speed data transmission – 100 – 1000Mbps  Wide Area Networks (WANs) o Connect BNs and MANs o Span hundreds or thousands of miles o Data transmission rates of 64 Kbps to 10 Gbps  Intranet—a LAN that uses the same technologies as the Internet, but is open to only those inside the organization  Extranet—uses the same technologies as the Internet, but instead is provided to invited users outside the organization who access it over the Internet. Network Models  Layers—breaking the entire set of communications functions into a series of layers, each of which can be defined separately. o Allows vendors to develop hardware and software to provide the functions of each layer separately. OSI Model Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model  Has 7 layers: 1. Physical Layer 2. Data Link Layer 3. Network Layer 4. Transport Layer 5. Session Layer 6. Presentation Layer 7. Application Layer  Characteristics/Differences: o Developed by formal committees o Is a formal standard that is documented in one standard Internet Model  Has 5 layers 1. Physical Layer 2. Data Link Layer 3. Network Layer 4. Transport Layer 5. Application Layer  The Internet model collapses the top three OSI layers (application, presentation, and session) into one layer— the application layer  Characteristics/Differences: o Developed by evolution from the work of thousands of people who developed pieces od the Internet o Has never been formally defined; has to be interpreted from a number of standards Message Transmission Using Layers  Each layer in the network uses a formal language, or protocol, that is simply a set of rules that define what the layer will do and that provides a clearly defined set of messages that software at that layer needs to understand.  Protocol Data Unit (PDU)—all layers except the physical layer create a new PDU as the message passes through them. o The PDU contains information that is needed to transmit the message through the network o Packet—some experts use the word packet to mean a PDU.  The PDU (packet) at a higher level is placed inside the PDU at a lower level so that the lower-level PDU encapsulates the higher-level one.  Standards—defines a set of rules, called protocols, that explain exactly how hardware and software that conform to the standard can communicate with any other hardware and software that conform to the same standard. Network Standards The Importance of Standards  Standards are necessary in almost every business and public service entity o Fire couplings used to not be standard, which meant a fire department in one community could not help in another community.  Importance/Reasons for Standards: o Ensures that hardware and software produced by different vendors can work together o Without standards, it would be difficult—if not impossible—to develop networks that easily share information o Means that customers are not locked into one vendor o Help promote more competition and hold down prices o Makes it much easier to develop software and hardware that link the different networks because software and hardware can be developed one layer at a time. The Standards Making Process  Two types of standards: o De Jure—developed by an official industry or government body; often called a formal standard  Ex: Web browser de jure standards—HTTP, HTML…  Ex: Network layer software de jure standard—IP  Ex: Data link software de jure standard—Ethernet IEEE 802.3  Ex: Physical hardware de jure standard—V.90 modem o De Facto—standards that emerge in the marketplace and are supported by several vendors but have no official standing  Ex: Microsoft Windows  Standards Making Groups: o International Organization for Standardization (ISO) o International Telecommunications Union—telecommunications Group (ITU-T) o American National Standards Institute (ANSI) o Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) o Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)


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