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Introduction into Psychology: Week 1

by: Haley Kirton

Introduction into Psychology: Week 1 Psych 100-01 - Introduction to Psychology

Haley Kirton
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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About this Document

This is the first set of notes for week 1. It covers noteworthy psychologists and physiologists as well as the major perspectives of psychology.
Introduction to Psychology
Chelsea J. Schaefer
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology, psychologists, Physiology, Psychology, physiologists




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Kirton on Tuesday August 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 100-01 - Introduction to Psychology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Chelsea J. Schaefer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 08/09/16
Introduction into Psychology Introduction and Research Materials  Psychology: the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.  Goals of psychological science: Describe behavior, explain behavior, predict behavior, and control or influence behavior. Aristotle -Impact of physiology on emergence or psychology -Scientific discoveries demonstrated that the scientific method could be applies to behavior and mental processes.  Rene Descartes (1596-1650) – Interactive dualism -Mind and body are separate entities that interact to produce sensations, emotions, and other conscious experiences Nature–Nature Issue -Today, focus on interaction of environment and genetics  Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) Founder of Psychology -1874-Landmark text: Principles of Physiological Psychology.  Edward Titchener -student of Wundt -developed approach called structuralism: involving introspection and study of basic components of conscious experiences. -Focused on basic sensory and perceptual process -Criticized for relying on introspection William James -Functionalism -Opposed Wundt and Titchener’s approach and shaped school of functionalism -Influenced by Darwin to focus on how behaviors help us adapt to the environment -Stressed the importance of how behavior functions allow people and animals to adapt to their environment. Sigmund Freud -Started school of thought called psychoanalysis: personality theory and form of psychotherapy. -Suggests behavior and personality influenced by unconscious conflicts. -Emphasizes the role of unconscious factors in personality and behavior. -Emphasizes sexual and aggressive nature of unconscious processes. -Powerful influence on later theories of psychology. Ivan Pavlov -Russian physiologist -Demonstrated that dogs could learn to associate a neutral stimulus, such as the sound of a bell, with an automatic behavior, such as reflexively salivating to food. John Watson -Posited that the goal of the behaviorists was to discover the fundamental principles of learning-how behavior is acquired and modified in response to environmental influences. B.F. Skinner -Believed that psychology should restrict itself to studying outwardly observable behaviors that could be measured and verified in compelling experimental demonstrations. Carl Rogers -Emphasized the person’s conscious experiences, unique potential for psychological growth and self-direction, self- determination, free will, and the importance of choice in human behavior. Major Perspectives in Psychology Biological perspective -Physical basis of behavior -Neuroscience: study of physiological mechanisms in brain and nervous system that organize and control behavior. -Focus may be at various levels such as individual neurons, areas of the brain, or specific functions like eating, emotion, or learning.  Psychodynamic Perspective -Based originally on Freud’s work. -Emphasis on unconscious processes and early experience. - Current psychologists with this perspective may or may not follow Freud or psychoanalytic principles.  Behavioral Perspective -Based on Watson, Pavlov, and Skinner. -Study of how behavior is acquired and modified through experience and environment.  Humanistic Perspective -Based on Maslow and Rogers. -Focuses on personal growth, interpersonal relationships, and self-concept. -Humanistic perspective is often emphasized among psychologists working in the mental health field. Positive Psychology Perspective -Based on Seligman and others. -Studies how to contribute to optimal functioning and counterbalance traditional emphasis on problem and disorders. - Topics under the umbrella of positive psychology include personal happiness, optimism, creativity, resilience, character strengths, and wisdom. Cognitive Perspective -Focuses on mental process, memory, perception, language, problem solving, and thinking. -Based on using computers as a model for human mental processing. Psychologists and Psychiatrists  Not all psychologists are clinicians -Clinical psychologists are trained in the diagnosis, treatment, causes, and prevention of psychological disorders: Ph.D. or Psy.D. Degrees. -Psychiatrists have medical degrees (M.D. or D.O.) followed by specialized training in the diagnosis, treatment, causes, and prevention of psychological disorders. -Emphasize biological factors and use biomedical therapies, such as prescription drugs, electroconvulsive therapy, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).


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