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Lecture 1 - Chapter 1-3: Classifying Matter

by: ShesANotetaker

Lecture 1 - Chapter 1-3: Classifying Matter CHM 2045

Marketplace > Florida Atlantic University > Chemistry > CHM 2045 > Lecture 1 Chapter 1 3 Classifying Matter
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About this Document

These notes cover the first lecture and some details that will help with Homework 1.
General Chemistry 1
Daniel H. Hutchital
Class Notes
Chemistry, Science, General Chemistry




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by ShesANotetaker on Tuesday August 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 2045 at Florida Atlantic University taught by Daniel H. Hutchital in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 431 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Florida Atlantic University.


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Date Created: 08/09/16
  08/23/2016  Lecture 1    Chapter 1: Basic Concepts of Chemistry  ★ 1­3​ Classifying Matter  ○ Chemistry is the stud​ f ​matter.   ■ Composition, Structure, Properties, and Reactions of matter  ○ Matter​: Anything that occupies space and has mass.   Matter can be…  ★ Classify according to its physical state   ○ Gas  ○ Solid  ○ Liquid  ★ Classify according to composition  ○ Element  ○ Compound  ○ Mixture  ■ Homogenous   ■ Heterogenous  ○ Mass​: Measure of the amount of matter that an object contains.   Pure Substances   ● Elements or compounds  ○ Compounds can be further reduced into two or more elements.   ● Elements  ○ Consist of onl​ ne​ type of atom. They cannot be broken apart.   ○ Has symbol and name  ○ Atomic number   ○ Relative atomic weight   ● Compounds  ○ Composed of two or more elements.       08/23/2016  Chemical Compounds  ● All compounds are made up of molecules or ions.   ○ Ionic compounds: contain charged parts i.e. sodium chloride, NaCl “Salt”.    ○ Molecular compounds: does not contain charged parts made of molecules i.e.  H​ O.   2​ FIXED RATIO  Compounds represented by a chemical formula.   ● Compounds are not just mixtures of elements.   1. Compounds have different properties than elements  2. Fixed composition ratio (definite proportion):   Definite % composition by mass.    Text example:   Iron pyrite FeS​ →​  46.55% iron and 53.45% sulfur   2 ​ Homogenous​: Uniform composition  ­ aka Solutions:   ­ Sugar in water  ­ Gasoline  ­ Brass (copper/zinc)  Solute​: minor component of a solution  Solvent​: Substance that contains solutes  Composition can vary:   Amount of solute in solvent!     Heterogeneous​: Non­uniform  ­ Can be separated by filtration.   When separated the components of both types of mixtures yields ​pure substances. ​      Physical Properties  Characteristics that can be evaluated without changing the composition of the material     08/23/2016  Physical Properties  Density (mass/unit volume)   Color  Boiling Point  Melting Point  States of Matter    Solubility      ­ Extensive: ​  Depends on amount of substance. (mass).   ­ Intensive​: does not depend on amount of substance. (density).   Density  Ratio of mass to volume. d=m/v   Example:   3  Object m= 20.4588 g V = 2.13 cm​ D = 9.60 g/cm​ 3    Mass → grams (g)   Volume (V) →   3  ● Solids: cm​ ● Liquids: ml   ● Gases: L   Physical Change   ● A change that does not entail change in chemical composition.   ○ Evaporation or melting  Chemical Change   ★ One or more than one substance are transformed into one or more new substances.   ★ Involves a change in chemical composition  ★ Results in a change of composition or structure  ★ Chemical reaction    08/23/2016  ○ Reactants →→products   ○ The ​reactants​ and ​products​ are very different.   ○ Mass is always conserved in chemical reactions.   ★ Example of chemical change is iron metal reacting with oxygen to form rust (iron oxide).  ★ Physical and chemical changes are usually accompanied by energy changes.   ○ Classified as ​kineti​ o​ otential​ energy.   ○ Matter consists of atom and molecules in motion.   ★ Potential energy results from position of an object:   ○ Energy stored in molecules.  


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