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by: Amna Ali
Amna Ali

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Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amna Ali on Wednesday August 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Gov at University of Texas at Austin taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 08/10/16
Nervous system review Basic Functions: ◦ Sensory nerves gather information from inside the body and  the outside environment. The nerves then carry the  information to central nervous system (CNS) ◦ Sensory information brought to the CNS is processed and  interpreted ◦ Motor nerves convey information from the CNS to the  muscles and the glands of the body Divisions:  ◦ Neuroglia:Astrocytes: ◦ Functions of astrocytes:(1) Some of the processes of astrocytes  are attached to the outer surface of the capillaries of brain and it acts  as Blood­Brain barrier.(2) Astrocytes invest most of the synaptic  contacts between neurons and are involved in retrieval of  neurotransmitters after their release. Astrocytes are primary glycogen store in the CNS. Oligodendrocytes Function: They help in formation and  maintenance of myelin sheath around the nerves of CNS. They also  provide energy to the neurons.  Ependymal cells: line the ventricles of the brain and central canal of  spinal cord. help actively in the formation of cerebrospinal fluid  make up the blood­CSF barrier. Microglial cells Functions: possess amoeboid movement and are  phagocytic in function. They act as scavenger cells of central nervous system. Neuron: a specialized cell transmitting nerve impulses; a nerve cell Parts of neuron + functions: Dendrites:These tiny protrusions receive information from other neurons and transmit electrical stimulation to the soma. Dendrites are also covered with synapses. Transmits information to the cell body cell body: is where the signals from the dendrites are joined and passed on. Contains numerous organelles which are mostly made of up endoplasmic reticulum. Supports and maintains the functioning of the neuron. The axon hillock is located at the end of the soma and controls the firing of the neuron If the total strength of the signal exceeds the threshold limit of the axon hillock, the structure will fire a signal (known as an action potential) down the axon. The axon is the elongated fiber that extends from the cell body to the terminal endings and transmits the neural signal. The larger the axon, the faster it transmits information. Some axons are covered with a fatty substance called myelin that acts as an insulator. These myelinated axons transmit information much faster than other neurons. Transmit information away from the cell body The terminal buttons are located at the end of the neuron and are responsible for sending the signal on to other neurons. At the end of the terminal button is a gap known as a synapse. Neurotransmitters are used to carry the signal across the synapse to other neurons. synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell)  to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron. The cerebrum is the largest and most developed of the five major divisions of the brain. The cerebrum directs the conscious or volitional motor functions of the body. Damage to this area of the brain can result in loss of muscular power and precision rather than total paralysis. A neurological disorder is any disorder of the body  nervous system. Structural, biochemical or electrical  abnormalities in the brain, spinal cord or other nerves can  result in a range of symptoms.


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