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by: Sima Fettman
Sima Fettman

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Survey Of Modern Lit I
Prof. Epstein
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sima Fettman on Wednesday August 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LLEN 220 0 at Touro College taught by Prof. Epstein in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Survey Of Modern Lit I in English Language&Literature at Touro College.


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Date Created: 08/10/16
HISTORY II French Revolution 1789-1799 Elites (monarchists, nobility, clergy, army) flee to the neighboring monarchies and warn them of the craziness that has overtaken France. These conservative countries panic that the ideas of the French Revolution (Liberty, Equality, Fraternity) will spread, so in 1792, they make a European Coalition to attack France. France creates a modern version of Nationalism (activism and commitment to your nation) to rally her people; everyone contributes to the war effort, because Frenchmen should rule France, not foreigners. This Nationalism turns the tide of the war that France was losing, and soon what the European Coalition had feared was coming true. The French were creeping over the continent and conquering it and her ideas were spreading. Meanwhile, back in France, Napoleon Bonaparte, had risen to fame through his military genius, leading the French Revolutionary armies to victory. A couple of years later, he overthrows the disliked government of the Reign of the Terror, and declares himself Premiere of the French Republic. This is not enough for him; by 1802, Napoleon declares himself Emperor of France, effectively abolishing the Republic. Even though, he is a dictator, the people don’t care because they are tired of the chaos and glad to have a strong leader. Plus, Napoleon is a savvy politician. Even as he takes away many of their rights, he gives the people some things they want. He abolishes birth privilege, opens government sponsored secondary schools, allows people to vote for members of the House of Legislature (which is completely under his control). He introduces the Napoleonic Code of Law, which codifies that all men are equal before the law. He promotes religious toleration, but not before making a treaty with the Pope to reinstate the Catholic Church in France, (because he is savvy enough not to underestimate the power of the Pope) however, the clergy is completely under his control; and although France is officially a Catholic state, there is religious toleration. Napoleon considers himself a man of Enlightenment. By 1812, Napoleon has direct control of France, Belgium, Holland, and most of Italy. His empire spans most of Europe. However, he cannot conquer his 2 greatest enemies: Britain and Russia. He also has to deal with nationalistic resistance; the occupied nations why should we have French foreigners ruling us, we are the Germans etc. Napoleon is constantly having to send troops to put out these fires. An ill planned invasion of Russia is his downfall. Russia’s tactic of scorching earth while retreating causes Napoleon to abandon his dying army and return to France. Russia, Britain and the ousted monarchies join forces to take advantage of this weak moment. In 1813, they capture and exile him. He escapes and rallies his forces for a hundred days, until his final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, 1815. Conservatism Congress of Vienna 1814-1815 brings together the various allies (England, Russia, Prussia, Austria) who had helped to defeat Napoleon, to discuss the future of Europe. Klemens von Metternich, Chancellor of Austria, is the host, and the key political player at this Congress. The general mood at this meeting is one of reactionary conservatism. It’s a system that wants traditional, legitimate, hierarchical society. Everyone at this meeting wants to restore the old systems of running Europe (monarchy, church). They redraw the map of Europe. France pretty much retains its original borders from before Napoleon’s rampage. They restore the monarchy of France, but basically keep its integrity. This is different from the old ways when all the winning countries would have divided up the country among them. Now, the focus is to keep the balance of power in Europe, they don’t want one country to become too powerful again. They want to protect Europe from future French aggression, so they create a buffer zone by linking Belgium with Holland and calling it the Kingdom of the Netherlands. They also give Savoy, the king of Piedmont, the island of Sardinia. These are territorial adjustments meant to contain France. They also allow Napoleon’s Warsaw Confederation to become Poland, although before it had been gobbled up by its 3 neighbors: Russia, Prussia, and Austria. Again, this is because of Metternich’s idea of balance of power. He doesn’t want one country to dominate. Metternich calls this the “Concert of Europe.” They also create the Confederation of Germany for trade purposes, and other trade alliances are also formed because England is very strong economically, and they don’t want it to become too powerful. Obviously, the people are not consulted about all these changes, it’s not democratic at all. They are trying to roll back the times to before the Revolution, even to before the Enlightenment. Metternich creates the Quadrupole Alliance – England, Russia, Prussia and Austria sign to patrol the borders to destroy any spark of revolutionary ideologies. In particular, they are afraid of liberalism and nationalism. Czar Alexander supplemented the Quadrupole Alliance with the Holy Alliance to protect Conservative Christianity. From 1815, for about 15 years the Conservatives are all over Europe suppressing any whiff of Revolution. ex: Northern Italy is taken over by Austria. The Carbonari are Italian nationalists who try to unite Italy to overthrow Austria. Metternich puts this movement down. Student unions, the Burschenschaften, in Germany talk about individual rights (liberalism), and national rights (nationalism). A rally in 1819 where someone gets killed, gives Metternich the pretext he needs to shut them down. Metternich convinces the other Princes to join him in establishing the Carlsbad Decrees. The decrees provided for uniform press censorship and close supervision of the universities. They justify these laws by invoking morality and tradition. Even in England there is a conservative mood during the 19 century. Yes, England has a Parliament, made up of the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The people who sit in the House of Lords come from the old, aristocratic families, and it does not have an elective system. The seats in the House of Lords are passed down = old wealth. The House of Commons does have an election system. But the people who can vote, and therefore the people who get elected are country gentry. They are very wealthy landowners, on par with the nobility in terms of wealth; they just lack the titles. Both Houses represent only a tiny part of the English population, who are representing themselves. In 1815, the English Parliament passes the Corn Laws – huge tariffs on any imported grain. The local landowners had benefited from Napoleon’s laws against importing foreign grain. Now, they don’t want to competition to become available again, because it would force them to lower their prices. Through the Corn Laws, they force the people to buy their grain, because the imported grain is impossibly expensive. They raise their prices so high that the working class are basically starving, and even the middle class is upset even though they can afford the grain, because the working class needs to use all of its money to buy bread, and so they cannot buy anything else…meaning, the middle class business owners are losing business! Also, many middle class business owners believe in laissez-faire; they don’t believe in this meddling with the economy. On top of this, Parliament passes Combination Laws which forbid Unions. All of this causes tremendous unrest and leanings toward revolutionary ideas. There is a demonstration in Manchester in 1819, and people are killed. The government cracks down: censoring press, putting down rebellions etc. (For economic reasons, England will be the fastest to let up on this conservative crackdown) Liberalism Benjamin Constant was a classic liberal. John Stuart Mill represents a shifting in liberalism, to include more than just the bourgeoisie. Mill is one of the first male supporters of women’s rights. Mill even wants to extend the vote to the working class. However, he’s not a full-fledged Democrat, he does want to have literacy requirments. Mill also breaks from classic liberalism in his ideas about the role of government. He believes in laissez-faire economy, but he is horrified at the state of the poor, so he feels there are some economic cases where the government has to step in: sewage collection and clean water in the slums, for example, otherwise disease will spread. Mill calls himself a humanitarian liberal, but he will be labeled by others as the big bad socialist (not so different from today). The first conservative countries that fall to liberalism are those on the periphery of Europe. ex: Greek liberals and nationalists rise up against the Ottoman Empire for their independence. Metternich wants the Quadrupole Alliance to swoop down and put out the revolution. However, the Russian Czar refuses to help put down the Greek rebellion because the Ottoman Empire is Muslim while the Greeks are Orthodox Christians like the Russians. Plus, there have been many years of political quarrel between the Ottoman Empire and Russia, so Russia would love nothing more than to see them weakened. Therefore, not only do they refuse to put the rebels down, the Czar sends them aid. Many others are also pulled emotionally to Greece, because most of Western civilization’s art and literature dates back to Greek culture during its glory days. So Lord Byron, a poet, becomes a martyr for the Greek cause. Even the English government sends aid to the Greek nationalists. So do the French, above Metternich’s protests. Why? For strategic economic interests – Greece is a great trading place, and they don’t want only Russia to gain power there – they have to be a part of the game too. Sure enough, in 1821, the Greeks declare their independence. Latin American countries are all inspired by Greece to rise for independence against Spain, who turn to Metternich for help. All agree to go in and help put down the Latin American revolts – how though? They need ships, and England is the one with the Navy. But England is not interested in putting down these rebellions, even though they were part of the Quadrupole Alliance, because it’s a lot easier and cheaper to trade directly with South America rather than having to go through Spain. Now, Metternich and the Czar would have found another way, but then little pipsqueak America pipes up with the Monroe Doctrine 1823, which tells Europe to stay out of our hemisphere or we’ll step in and fight you (big brother role for their benefit). America is not really that strong right now, but everyone is too scared to test them. The Decembrist Uprising 1825 Czar Alex I dies, and there’s fighting between the sons about who should take over. The vacuum of power is perceived, and the people take advantage of this opportunity to rebel. However, the calls are varied. Some want a constitutional monarchy, others want democracy etc. The army is a strong part of this uprising because they had been influenced by liberal ideas when they were fighting in the West. The new Czar Nicholas I, who’d been in the army himself, quickly purges the army of any such ideas and takes control of Russia as a strong conservative monarch (he introduces the Cantonist idea). The uprising is brutally suppressed and Russia once again under an archconservative repressive regime. In 1830, there’s a huge wave of revolutions, no longer only in the periphery, but all over Europe… Underlying Causes:  worsening economic situations due to bad harvests, shortage of food (echo of French rev) People are undergoing unendurable suffering in their daily lives  social/political issues: At the same time that the poor are getting poorer, there is a rising middle class who are making greater political demands, pressuring the nobility to share the power The 1830 Revolutions France: After Napoleon was defeated, the Congress of Vienna had restored the monarchy, but there was also a Parliament of the wealthy, noble, elite etc. Charles X is now the French king, and he’s even more conservative than his predecessor. He makes many laws censoring the press, restricting the suffrage etc. This leads to demonstrations by the workers, anger by the peasants and action by the students! Charles’ reaction is to send the troops to shoot them, but instead the troops join the demonstrations. Eventually Charles agrees to abdicated the throne. But now nobody can agree on what sort of government should take over. The liberal middle class eventually prevails and they create a constitutional monarchy. They choose Louis Phillipe, the Duke of Orleans as king, to gain the support of the noble conservatives, and because he had supported the revolution. Louis Phillipe calls himself the ‘Citizen King’ – King of the French people, not of France. As a liberal king, he increases suffrage, but only for the wealthy, because this is not a democracy. Nobody besides for the bourgeoisie are happy; the conservatives, democrats and republicans are all disgruntled. However, 1830 still was a great success for liberals. Belgium: Inspired by the French, the Belgians rise up against their conservative Dutch king. So, not only do the Belgians want liberalism, they are also fighting for nationalistic reasons. Sure enough, the Belgians throw off the Dutch and establish their own liberal constitutional monarchy. Another success of 1830. Unsuccessful 1830 Revolts Poland: Polish nationalism results in an uprising against the Russian Czar, Nicholas I, who brutally defeats it. The Poles are devastated and Poland once again merges with Russia. Germany: The burschenschaften try to revitalize, but are not successful Italy: Some activists who’d been involved with the Carboni are back in the new Young Italy movement led by Giuseppe Mazzini – recruits the young generation who pledge allegiance to the cause, even at the cost of their lives. England: Sees the most success (of all Europe) of liberalism in the 1820’s – 1830’s because England is the most industrialized, so they have the fastest growing middle class Tariffs are lowered Easier for businesses to trade with other countries Abolish restrictions on non-Anglicans Abolish capital punishment on minor misdemeanors However, they still are not interested in Repealing the Corn Laws Parliamentary reform But the pressure for this to change is mounting, and England will also experience a volatile 1830. After much debate the government finally addresses Parliamentary reform. With the Reform Bill of 1832: they increase the suffrage, and reallocate seats in the House of Commons so that the “rotten boroughs” the rural district’s (whose citizens have mostly left for the cities) seats are given to the cities instead. Although the immediate changes are not that drastic, they are very important long term. The businessmen of the cities will gain seats in Parliament and soon the House of Commons will be the more powerful House of Parliament and liberal laws will be passed. 1833 – slavery abolished in England (this is very liberal, progressive newspapers are allowed to report on gov’t proceedings Church is made less powerful 1846 – finally manage to repeal the Corn Laws. This is a great victory for free trade, laissez-faire and industry believers Liberals believe in education, and there is a general chivalry toward women and children. So many, like John Stuart Mills, are distressed by the horrific conditions in the workplace, which are being exposed by the muckraking reporters. But gov’t laws regulating the factories go against the concept of “laissez-faire.” This contradiction produces vehement debates on the floor of the Parliament. 1833 – First Factory Act is passed after much rancorous debate In general, the poor working class does not benefit from having liberals in gov’t. By every revolution, the poor working class give up their lives for the cause, but they never gain – they don’t get the vote, they don’t benefit at all. One way they deal with this is by forming labor unions. However, it’s very difficult to build strong unions. First of all, the business owners who are now in gov’t make labor unions illegal. Even when they’re not illegal, there’s tremendous pressure against it, plus everyone’s terrified of getting fired, jailed, or killed – how do you convince them it’s worth it to join a union? So it’s a slow process to get unions working and they only become a serious force th toward the end of the 19 century. So in the 1830’s in England there’s an interesting working class political movement. Chartism – named after the People’s Charter of 1838 which drew up a list of demands of the people: We want universal male suffrage We want salaries paid to members of Parliament (because otherwise only the wealthy can afford to be part of gov’t) We want secret ballots We want annual Parliaments (not a good idea, cuz then they spend all term campaigning) This is a popular working class movement, although it’s not successful, at least they have a focus for their energies. Socialism as an alternative system becomes popular among the students and other liberals who want more progress. Also based on Enlightenment ideas, Socialism is based on we’re all in it together, and gov’t should help everyone. th Socialism only becomes a serious political force later in the 19 century, right now mostly in France. 1848 – Next wave of political revolutions Long term causes The Industrial Revolution has caused major social/economic changes Population growth Demographics have shifted from rural to urban, causing physical stresses; miserable housing conditions diseases miserable working conditions psychological stresses; lonely, no sense of community in a city Because rich and poor live so close to each other, the cities are fertile breeding grounds for jealousies, fears, and resentment Short term causes Agricultural crises across Europe Bad weather = bad harvest = rising prices When people are hungry, they are desperate Financial crises Tons of unemployment, especially of those craftsmen who are being replaced by machinery Basically, the Industrial Revolution is a volatile period.


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