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by: Kaitlyn Notetaker
Kaitlyn Notetaker

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Test notes for uploading
Language Science
John Thorne
Class Notes
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Popular in Language Science

Popular in SPCH - Speech

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Notetaker on Wednesday August 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 303 at University of Washington taught by John Thorne in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Language Science in SPCH - Speech at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 08/10/16
Osteoporosis  Definition​: a disease characterized by porous and fragile bones with a low bone density    Bone Development & Disintegration   ● bone has 2 compartments: ​cortic​ al bone­the outer hard shell,​ trabecul​ar bone­the inner  lacy matrix that has calcium containing crystals   ● trabecular bone is sensitive to hormones that govern day­to­day deposits and withdrawals  of calcium; it readily gives up minerals when blood calcium needs replenishing; loss  typically begins in the 30’s but can occur sooner if calcium withdraw exceeds deposit   ● cortical bone gives up calcium slowly and over time and typically starts at 40 and  continues into old age   ● when bones are weak from osteoporosis it can lead to spinal problems because the bones  are unable to support the weight of the body   ● osteoporosis is identified by doctors by measuring bone density; lower bone density =  osteoporosis   ● to maximize bone mass, a diet must provide an adequate supply of calcium for the first 3  decades of life    Risk Factors for Osteoporosis   ●​ Gender (females): menopause causes lower levels of estrogen which releases cytokines  that produce inflammation and accelerate bone loss   ● old age   ● small frame  ● ​ genetics/family history: caucasian, asian, hispanic/latino are most likely to be at risk  ● estrogen/testosterone deficiency  ​ ● sedentary lifestyle: muscle strength and bone strength go hand in hand; when muscles  work, they pull on the bone, stimulating them to grow denser. Not enough exercise can  lead to weaker bones.   ● inadequate amount of ca ​ lcium and vitamin D in diet: vitamin D is needed to maintain  calcium metabolism and optimal bone health   ● diet excessi​ve in protein, sodium, caffeine: sodium and potassium may have an effect in  calcium excretion   ​ ● cigarettes, alcohol abuse: excessive alcohol consumption enhances fluid excretion, which  leads to excessive calcium loss in urine    ● low body weight  ● certain medications such as glucocorticoids and anticonvulsants         Calcium and Osteoporosis  ● calcium has 2 roles: 1) important in bone structure, providing a rigid frame that holds the  body upright 2) serves as a calcium bank, offering a readily available source of calcium  to the body when needed   ● when bones form, calcium salts form crystals, and during mineralization the crystals  become denser, and they give strength and rigidity to maturing bones   ● calcium found in milk and milk products   ● not enough calcium= weak bones= osteoporosis  


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