Chapter 1 The Study of Human Development
Chapter 1 The Study of Human Development Psych 2314
Popular in Developmental Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Siân L'Roy on Wednesday August 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2314 at Tarrant County College District taught by Dr. Vince Limbo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Tarrant County College District.
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Date Created: 08/10/16
Chapter I: The Study of Human Development Human Development “Womb to Tomb” Multidisciplinary Same/Change Nature vs. Nurture “Genetics vs. Environment” Nature o Genetic or Hereditary Influences Nurture o Experiential or Environmental Influence Development o Exclusive? o Mutually Interactive? Basic Forces in Human Development A. Life Cycle How the same events affects people of different ages differently B. Biopsychosocial Framework 1. Biological a. Genetics b. Setting the boundary conditions c. Raw materials 2. Psychological a. Perception How we view things b. Cognitive How we solve things c. Emotion How we react to things d. Personality How we are “brought up/ environment” 3. Social Cultural a. Interpersonal Personal space b. Social How a person reacts around people in public c. Culture How a person does a certain “thing” that is common in their culture d. Ethnic How a person views another person by beliefs and morals Developmental Theories 1. Psychodynamic Theory Freud a. Resolution of internal conflicts between what children want to do and what society wants them to do Chapter I: The Study of Human Development 2. Psychosocial Theory Erikson a. Emphasizes psychosocial, social, and life cycle *(see table 1.1) b. Epigenetic Principle The Eight Stages of Psychosocial Development Learning Theories 1. Behaviorism Consequences determines if a behavior is repeated a. Reinforcement (positive) b. Punishment (negative) 2. Social Learning (Social Behavioral) a. Imitation 3. Social Cognitive a. Actively understanding or interpreting the situation b. Selfefficacy “Self confidence in everyday terms” Cognitive Development Theories 1. Piaget’s Theory a. Four stages b. Fundamental Change in Thinking *(see table 1.2) 2. Kohlberg’s Theory a. Theory of Moral Reasoning 3. Information Processing Theory a. Computer Hardware and Software Life Span Perspective Multidirectional Plasticity Capacities are not set in stone, they can be molded Historical Context Multiple Causation Behaviors do not have a single cause Measurement of Behavior Systematic Observations o Naturalistic Observation only e.g. Monkeys in their natural habitats o Structured Observation; family e.g. The evaluation of how a family interacts o SelfReport o Reliability Tests must be consistent o Validity Test must measure what it says it is going to measure Correlations Identifies a relationship between two variables Chapter I: The Study of Human Development Correlation Coefficient (r) o Direction “+” or ““ sign o Strength 0 to 1 o –r= .78 (closer to 1) o R=+ .29 Weakness Cannot draw cause and effect conclusions o Positive Value changes in same direction; Ice cream sales o Negative Values change in opposite direction; Absents Experiment Systematic way of measuring or manipulating key factors that the investigator thinks causes a particular behavior. Variables o Independent Cell phones (Effector) o Dependent Driving (Efficiency) Key Principles in Psychology Nature and Nurture Interact No two persons are exactly alike o Examples Aunt Sally Smoked three packs of cigarettes while pregnant and none of her kids showed any signs of birth defects. Teenage Automobile Insurance Rates For many question, there are no “cut and dry” answers Why do people cry? Psychology is relevant to our daily lives
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