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Biology 1610 Week 1 Notes

by: Paige Olivia List

Biology 1610 Week 1 Notes Biology 1610

Marketplace > Southern Utah University > Science > Biology 1610 > Biology 1610 Week 1 Notes
Paige Olivia List
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These notes cover Chapter 1 and 2 of the 10th Edition Campbell Biology by the authors: Reece, Urry, Cain, Wasserman, Minorsky, and Jackson.
Intro to biological sciences
Dr. Karl Jarvis
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paige Olivia List on Thursday August 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 1610 at Southern Utah University taught by Dr. Karl Jarvis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 130 views. For similar materials see Intro to biological sciences in Science at Southern Utah University.


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Date Created: 08/11/16
Chapter One Notes Evolution: Change of life forms to adapt through the years. Biology: Scientific study of life. Biological Organization:  Biosphere­Consists of all life on Earth in every places.  Ecosystems­Living things in a specific area.  Communities­Different species in an ecosystem.  Populations­All individuals of a species in certain boundaries.  Organisms­Individual living things.  Organs­Carries out a particular function in the body.  Tissues­Group of cells that work together for a function.  Cells­Life’s unit of structure and function.  Organelles­Various functional components present in cells.  Molecules­Chemical structure of two or more units of atoms. Emergent Properties: New properties that increase as the complexity increases. Systems Biology: Exploration of biology systems by analyzing interaction between parts. Structure and Function:  Knowing the function of something helps you understand structure.  Cell is the smallest unit that can perform all activities. Prokaryotic Cell:   Bacteria and Archaea  Lacks a nucleus and organelles.  Smaller than Eukaryotic Cells. Eukaryotic Cell:   Contains Membrane  Enclosed organelles  Has a nucleus  Larger than Prokaryotic Cells. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid):  Contain genetic material.  Encode into necessary to build molecules synthesized within a cell.  Establishes cell’s identity and function.  Double Helix  Nucleotides: A, T, C, and G.  Particular Protein­Enzyme: Breaks down sugar. RNA:  Controls protein molecules translated into amino acids (protein building blocks).  Process is called gene expression.  RNA molecules: mRNA­ Translated into proteins. Genome: “Library” of genetic instructions. Genomics: Study different genes. Proteomes: “Library” of entire protein. Proteomics: Study sets of proteins and their properties. Technology:  High Throughput Development: Tools that analyze bio samples fast.  Bioinformatics: Computational tools to store, analyzes huge amounts of data through fast  methods.  Interdisciplinary Research Teams: Group of different scientists from different fields. Energy:   Input energy and transforming it from one form to another, making life possible.  Producers: Create their own food.  Consumers: Eat Producers.  An organism uses Chemical energy to perform.  Some energy is lost to heat.  Interaction:  Ensures smooth integration for function as a whole.  Crucial for smooth operation. Feedback Regulation: Product of a process regulates that process. Negative Feedback: Loop in which response reduces first stimuli. Positive Feedback: Less common and end product speeds its own production. Interactions  between organisms can affect growth of populations. 3 Domains of Life: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. 3 Kingdoms of Life: Plantae, Fungi, Animalia. Darwin’s 2 Main Points: Descent with Modification and Natural Selection. Deductive Reasoning: Initial observations rise from multiple hypotheses. Inductive Reasoning: General theory from certain observations. Chapter Two Matter: Anything that takes up space and has mass and is made up of elements. Elements: A substance that can’t break by chemical reactions.  There are 92 elements that exist. Compound:   Two or more different elements combined in a ratio.  Example of matter having emergent properties: Compound has different characteristics  than its elements.  20­25% of the 92 elements are essential elements needed for organisms to live a healthy life. 4 elements (O, C, H, and N) make up 96% of living matter. Ca, P, K, S, and others make up the other 4 %. Trace Elements: Elements needed for a brief amount of time. (Fe and I are examples of trace  elements.) Atom: Smallest unit of matter. Subatomic Particles:  Smaller units than atoms.  Neutrons (neutral charge), Protons (positive charge), Electrons (negative charge)  Atomic Nucleus contains Protons and Neutrons. Measurements for atoms: Scientists use Dalton or atomic mass unit (amu). Atomic Mass: Elements number of protons and electrons in a neutral atom.  Located at the  bottom of the element. Mass Number: Number of protons and neutrons.  Also known as Atomic Mass. Located at the  top number of the element. Isotopes:   An atomic form of an element with a different number of neutrons and atomic mass.  Radioactive Decay: Nucleus decays, giving off energy.  Also used as diagnostic tools, such as PET scans.  Radioactive Decay helps to date fossils.  Half­Life: Time it takes for 50% of parent isotope to decay. Energy: Has the capacity to cause change. Potential Energy: Energy in matter because of location. Electrons:  Can change an atom’s chemical behavior.  Valence Electrons: Outermost shell.  They are found in an orbital ().  No more than two electrons can be in an orbital. Chemical Bonds:   Covalent Bond is sharing a pair of valence electrons by two atoms.  Nonpolar Covalent Bond: Two atoms with same electronegativity.  Polar Covalent Bond: An atom bonded to a more electronegative bond.  Molecule: Two or more atoms held by covalent bonds.  Valence: Bonding capacity. Electronegativity: attraction of bonds.  Ionic Bond has two oppositely charged ions that are attracted to each other.  Ion: Oppositely charged atoms.  Cation: Positive ion  Anion: Negative ion. Weak Chemical Bonds:   Hydrogen Bonds  Van der Waals Interactions.  Weak until it bonds with other elements and then it becomes strong. Molecules Shape and Function:  Molecules shape is determined by position of orbitals. Chemical Reactions: Reactants   reaction     Products


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