New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 1-Intro to Buddhism

by: Anna Notetaker

Week 1-Intro to Buddhism Asian 230

Marketplace > University of Michigan > Humanities > Asian 230 > Week 1 Intro to Buddhism
Anna Notetaker

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Week 1 Material :)
Intro to Buddhism
Donald Lopez
Class Notes
Buddhism, Language, religion, Humanities
25 ?




Popular in Intro to Buddhism

Popular in Humanities

This 51 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Notetaker on Thursday August 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Asian 230 at University of Michigan taught by Donald Lopez in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Intro to Buddhism in Humanities at University of Michigan.


Reviews for Week 1-Intro to Buddhism


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/11/16
Sept. 11 Lecture Thursday, September 13, 2012 10:31 AM Structure of Buddhist Universe: Worldview (Ch. 1,4)  Christians viewed Buddhists as idolaters o Idolatry spread from Egypt to China  Needed explanation because all ancestors of Noah + family  Persians captured Pharaoh because Egyptians refused to shoot at cats (550 BC)  Some escaped to India  How does Buddha explain universe? o Buddha says: imagine man shot by arrow  Man who shot, is he tall or short? Details of arrow?  To ask where world came from = useless question  Irrelevant details o Need to act on bad of today Time  There is no beginning to universe  Different worlds in universe o Come in and out of existence  World begins when wind begins to blow  Wind = karma of beings that will populate world  Wind flows, water forms, earth forms, physical present o Beings reborn spontaneously  Like gods  Can fly, luminous, no gender  World is covered with white, frothy surface o Being/deity has momentof curiosity  What does white matter taste like?  Tastes sweet o Rest of beings eat  Weight makes them lose ability to fly and give off life and develop genitals  Sun/moon appear to light world o White substance turns into rice  Man and woman have first sex act because discover new use for developed organs o Viewed as disgusting  Rice thrown at them by other humans  Build hut to have sex without scorn  Humans get lazy, keep rice piles in hut, birth of agriculture  Human life span has been decreasing since creation of world o At time of Buddha, lifespan = 100 o Believe human life span will decrease to 10  Worst possible state of humanity  War, incest, disease  Will increase afterwards  Cycles Space: Structure of Buddhist World  World is flat, surrounded by ring of mountains o Ocean inside  Center of ocean = Mt. Meru  Square mountain o Four faces of mountain = precious stones  Gold  Crystal  Ruby  Lapis  Sky = color of precious stone depending on side o We’re on side of lapis because blue  4 nations/islands surrounding mountain in different shapes  We are south = Triangle = Jambudvipa  Beings live on other islands  World divided into 3 realms o Formless Realm o Form Realm o Desire Realm  Where we live because desire dominates our lives  Desire 5 things  Beautiful things to look at, hear, smells, tastes, touch  6 types of beings  Gods  Demigods  Humans  Animals  Ghosts  Hell beings  Everyonehas been reborn multiple times o All have been all 6 types of beings many times  Universe = samsara (means wandering)  Hell = elaborate system o 8 Hot hells  1. Reviving Hell  Immediatelyin battle, all die, all revived, repeat  2. Black Line hell  Saw your body along black line  3. Destruction Together  Walls come together to smash everyonein it  4. Crying hell  In room of burning iron  5. Great Crying  Think you found escape, bigger room with burning iron  7. Very hot hell  Pitchforks and fire  8. Avici Hell = worst  Body = constantly burning o People placed here because of greatest sin = hatred and deed provokedby it o Cold Hells  No sun/moon,ice and snow, naked Neighboring Hells o Neighboring Hells  In swamp of corpses, get to field of razors, grove of swords  Get to airplane o All = nightmares of repetition Reincarnation Process=closed system  Hell beings, ghosts, animals, humans, demigods, gods = worst to best  Ghosts (preta): primary sufferings = food and drink o Anything attemptedto eat or drink turns fatal o Buddhist monks feed them  Animals suffering= constantly seeking food and trying not to get killed  Human sufferings (8) o Birth o Sickness o Age o Death o Losing friends o Making enemies o Not getting what is desired o Getting what is undesirable  Gods o Many heavens  Ex: heaven of 33 on mt. meru  Know of the end when flowers wilt, palace dusty, servants abandon  Movefrom bliss to under  Demigods o Kicked out of heaven o Fight over tree with gods because motivatedby jealousy Form Realm  Reborn here by meditation  4 levels based on concentration Formless Realm 1. Infinite Space because mind is in blissful state 2. Infinite consciousness 3. Nothingness 4. Peak of existence States are irrelevant to path to nirvana Wheel of Rebirth above all places of worship  Desire, hatred, ignorance = core of system of rebirth  Heaven of 33 = 33 gods (same as Hinduism) but can be reborn, don’t live forever Suicide = rare because negative deed and causes rebirth in hell Present body portrays what one did in the past  Present mind reveals what will be in future Sept. 13 Lecture Thursday, October 18, 2012 10:17 AM Life of the Buddha (Ch.13-15) • Life Span: 563-483BCE or 480-400BCE ○ Nothing written down until 400 years after Buddha died ○ Evidence of historical existence  Christianity: Matthew, Mark, Luke = synoptic because looking at same event  Don't have historically accurate vs. mythologyin Buddhism • Story of Buddha ○ Queen Maya had dream that white elephant entered womb  White elephant = symbol of good dream  10 lunar months later, out walking garden □ Child emerged from right side  Completelyclean, walked, took 7 steps ◊ Where foot touched, lotus blossomed  Could talk ◊ Told mom that it was his last lifetime  Mom died 7 days later ○ King called in court astronomers  Claimed son would either be great king or great saint □ King/emperor= chakravartin = wheel turner  One claimed that only one possibility = saint  King was horrified that son (Siddhartha) might becomesaint □ Wanted to prevent him from renouncing world  Believed depression caused this ◊ Attempted to create perfect world for son  Special palace with food, furnishings, women, etc.  Lived in perfected domain for 29 years – Married beautiful princess  Excelled at everymanly art ○ Son became curious about outside world after 29 years of living in paradise  Goes on chariot ride to view outside world □ King's men cleared route of sick, ugly, old, etc.  Route = like palace  One old man is missed by King's men sweep (1st) □ Son asked, "What is that?" "Is that The Old Man?"  Concept was foreign to him ○ Son becomes depressed  Curious again and sees a sick man that is missed (2nd)  Sees a man carrying a dead body (3rd)  Sees a man meditating under tree (4th) ○ Tells father he wants to renounce the world  Father says he should because he's lived longer □ Son asks that he never gets sick, old, die  Father can't so son says he will leave  Father locks all doors □ Instructed woman of inner chamber to distract prince Performfor him but he rejects and doesn't pay attention  Performfor him but he rejects and doesn't pay attention ◊ Women fall asleep ◊ Prince feels he's in charnel ground (place for bodies) and must go  Son born that day but called him fetter – Name = Rahula ○ Son/prince escapes palace on horse  Switches clothes with servant □ Tells him to tell father that he's out searching for the truth □ Cuts off hair and throws into sky  God of heaven of 33 caught it and created shrine  Never cut hair again  Begs for food in local village □ Pukes from taste of food given by villager ○ Approaches a local teacher and asks for direction on how to meditate  Quickly reaches same level  Sees anger in teacher so finds different teacher □ Teacher tries to start sect with him but prince knows better  Big time for practice of asceticism= difficult physical acts in order to reach better spiritual connection □ The Group of 5 introduced him to this  Buddha works with group for 5 years ◊ Naked, not obeying commands,not eating frequently, wore/atenatural, blood  Slept in bed of nails  Said did aesthetic practices completelyand realizes not working ◊ So hungry/skinny that woman thought he was a ghost  Group of 5 abandoned him – Sat down to find state beyond sickness and death ○ Buddha attacked by god Mara = god of desire/death  Knew he couldn't let Buddha overcomedeath/sickness  Mara's demons attacked but always miss □ Has invisible protectionshield  Sent tidal wave to wash away but robe doesn't even get wet  Mara realizes violencewon't work and sent beautiful daughters □ Won't get fooled, thinks wants older women,but frozen in elderly state  Ask Buddha to get turned back and does  Buddha sits under tree still until reaches state but private property □ Took him thousands of lifetimes to reach englightenment ○ Buddha reaches down and touches earth with right hand (left hand in lap)  "she will testify on my behalf"  Mara leaves after witnessing tremor ○ Buddha meditates  1st watch of night: sees past lifetime as vision (6-10 pm)  2nd watch of night: vision of how karma works (10-2)or rise and fall based on deeds  3rd watch of night: direct experience of faith beyond birth and death (2-6 am) ○ On 35th birthday he woke up and became the Buddha  Awakened from sleep of ignorance □ Realized existence of state beyond birth/death and how to get there  Enlightened- what now? Sept. 14 Discussion Thursday, October 18, 2012 10:18 AM Key Concepts • The 3 Jewels: ○ Buddha = teacher ○ Dharma = teachings ○ Sangha = communitythat follows Buddha  Ex: monks/followers • Karma ○ p.3: the law of the cause and effect of actions  Evaluation of past deeds and future births  Natural law of universe □ Determinespain vs. pleasure • Karma = related to different hells ○ Punishment for past decisions  Stupidity, greed, fear, hatred, etc. • Nirvana = ultimate truth ○ Human = best form because only way can get to nirvana  Path to nirvana = separate from cycle of rebirth  Accessible to Buddha's teaching (Dharma) ○ "absence"  State beyond Samsara/suffering • Samsara = system of rebirth for humans ○ Wandering ○ Dictated by suffering  When get out, go to nirvana • Jataka Stories (Ch. 14-15)= birth stories ○ Buddha recalling his past lives Sept. 18, 20 Lecture Thursday, October 18, 2012 10:37 AM The Four Truths (Ch. 2,3) • 35th birthday = Buddha ○ Experience was so powerful that he remained in vicinity of tree  Tree = Bodhi Tree = Enlightenment Tree  Seven weeks (49 days) □ Length of time between rebirths □ Relives enlightenment, going over,figuring out □ Didn't eat anything because strength of enlightenment was so powerful  Figuring out what to do next after liberation from rebirth ○ A god comes down from Form realm and says to Buddha, "some beings have a lot of dust in their eyes (ignorance) but other beings have little (will understand) and have been waiting for someone to show path out of death/rebirth"  Beings that have little dust = those in samsara  Encourages Buddha to go teach ○ Merchants come by and give Buddha honey cakes  1st meal after Enlightenment  Buddha doesn't teach them anything □ Gives merchant his hair  Famous in Burma today ○ Buddha wants to return to meditatorsbut knew they had died  Decides to go teach Group of Five that took him in □ On way, told he has great skin and asked who he is  Claims he is Buddha  Dismisseshim ○ Buddha arrives at deer sanctuary where Group of 5 sees him  Name = Gautama  Buddha tells them not to call him Gautama, claims he's Buddha right away □ Tathagata = primary term of self reference Buddha uses  One who has gone through enlightenment  Group asks him what he's discovered/learned □ Buddha teaches for first time  Turns the wheel of the Dharma for the first time ◊ Turning of wheel = spreading of truth ◊ Dharma = teaching/doctrine • Buddha's first teachings ○ Two ends of spectrum (extremes)  Life of self-indulgence  Life of self-mortification □ Both are not paths to liberation  He'd tried both □ Middle way between 2 extremes= Buddhism  Need strong, healthy body • The Four Truths ○ Suffering (effect) (symptoms)  Life is qualified by suffering  3 levels □ Suffering of pain Physical and mental  Physical and mental □ Suffering of change  Feelings of pleasure = sufferings of change ◊ What makes us happy will eventually make us sad  Ex: eating, sex, etc.  Change from pleasure into pain ◊ Our life = learning to know when to stop □ Suffering of conditioning  Susceptible to suffering in next instant ◊ No control ◊ Conditioned that anything can happen  Utter uncertainty of future  Worst thing ◊ Completelyrandom events in our own life so we're drawn to predictability ◊ Something about who we are that we can suffer horribly/mildlyin next instant and there is nothing we can do about it  Ex: suffering of conditioning = having tuft of cotton in hand – Don't know it's there – In eye = stop everything to get out ○ Origin (cause) (diagnosis)  Comes from good/bad karma  10 Deeds □ Killing □ Stealing □ Sexual misconduct □ Lying □ Divisivespeech □ Harsh speech □ Senseless speech □ Covetousness □ Harmful intent □ Wrong view  Not believing in karma  Differences of 10 deeds vs. 10 commandments: ◊ Harmful to others ◊ First 3 = 3 things done with body ◊ #4-7 = speech ◊ #8-10 = mind/thoughts  These deeds cause physical or mental pain  10 Good Deeds ◊ Opposites of bad deeds  Karma creates pleasure, pain, circumstance □ Always within samsara cycle  Cannot moveout □ No god present so karma is the consequence  Explains away unjust suffering ◊ Ex: suffering of innocent child is there because of past life  Leaves nothing to chance  Response to karma = free ◊ Produces more karma  No karma produced once Buddha is enlightened  One completeaction causes entire life □ Need to have victim □ Need to have wish □ Need to have wish □ Need to commitaction □ Need to completeaction  Ex: want to murder brother, get brother to come over, shoot at brother, kill brother  If intention remains constant then action complete ◊ Regret = not complete □ Everything else just create details of life  Free will to respond to karma and create future karma  Karma = action and klesha = affliction □ 3 Poisons:  Desire  Hatred ◊ Motivationsbehind 10 deeds  Lead us into samsara forever  Ignorance ◊ Active misconceptionof the state of things  Active misunderstanding of yourself and who you are ◊ Impermanence - nothing lasts longer than a moment/second  If we weren't projecting continuity, would be able to see that things are in constant state of flux/falling apart – Everything is changing so rapidly that there's no stability – Person = combination of moleculesthat is constant state of change/flux that goes in and out of existence  No soul or self  Basic insight of Buddhist philosophy = anatmen (no-self) – Put end to belief in self and put end to desire and hatred ○ Cessation (effect) (prognosis)  Root of hatred and desire - motivatesthese thing  Destroyingignorance makes desire and hatred impossible – Then cannot perform acts that come from desire/hatred  "of those things that have causes, he's described their causes and he's also described their cessations" ○ Path (cause) (cure)  Buddhist practices  No self = basic element of path  Consciousness changing from momentto momentproves that there is no self  3 Trainings  Ethics  Meditation  wisdom ○ Four Noble Truths = miscommunication  Aryan = noble, superior  For Buddha = spiritual nobility  Truths are not relevant for those who get it/are spiritually noble • Five Guys became enlightened right after being taught about 4 Truths by Buddha ○ They were ready and Buddha was good teacher  Didn't need to meditate ○ Became Arhat = worthyone  No more rebirth, will enter nirvana at death ○ First 5 monks • Nirvana = cessation of birth, death, suffering, rebirth ○ Extinction/extinguished Destroypast karma and don't produce any more ○ Destroypast karma and don't produce any more ○ Cessation of suffering = cessation of karma = cessation of mind and body ○ Not a place you go or live forever  End of rebirth  No consciousness because consciousness is part of karma  No body  Cannot experience it ○ Want it because end of rebirth = end of suffering of conditioning  Nothing more desirable than ultimate end of suffering Notes on Questions • Religions of time ○ Brahmanism = priests that worked for wealthy  Brahmin castes □ Warrior caste  Buddha came from  Merchant  laborer ○ Jainism • Karma = action ○ Initially meant sacrificial act ○ Buddha: tookemphasis away from action to intention  Less about right vs. wrong action, more about if intention was good vs. evil  Determinesforce of karma  Action reveals some sort of intention/motivation □ Able to kill bad guy and be okay  Ex: saving people and saving evil person from hell ○ Different powers of intensity based on power of emotion • Suffering of conditioning differs from other sufferings ○ Pain = physical, change = pleasure, conditioning = neutrality quick to turn to suffering • Buddhists don't believe in forgiveness because there is no entity to dispense forgiveness ○ No one can erase karma  Not even Buddha can forgive or avoid others suffering • One deed can cause lifetime and details of lifetime determined by other things Sept. 21 Discussion Thursday, October 18, 2012 10:40 AM Key Concepts • Ch. 2 ○ Why do we want to be human?  Access to Dharma  Can reach nirvana  Pg. 20 □ Buddha's are in nirvana □ Burning house = suffering = samsara  Infinite lifetime haven't stopped origin of suffering ◊ Karma causes suffering ◊ Klesha causes karma □ 3 poisons  Ignorance causes klesha causes karma • Ch. 3 ○ Highlighting actions that are positive  Powerbehind good actions • Ch. 25-27 ○ Ch. 25 (p. 223)  Account of Buddha and how originally monks were ordained □ Buddha simply said "come" □ Processof becoming a monk became much more complex Notes on Questions • There is no first lifetime ○ No beginning or end ○ Constant cycle • Continual stream of consciousness ○ No aspect of you that's constant over time ○ Impermanence • Population increase/decreasebecause born into different forms • Tiger story: good life to live in zoo ○ Doesn't have to hunt and isn't hunted ○ 1 deed determined that he was a tiger  Still good karma that created good life for tiger □ Incompleteactions determine details Sept. 25 Lecture Thursday, October 18, 2012 10:45 AM The Order • The Order = sangha = community/order of monks and nuns ○ Claim = if all at least stream enterer, do not need rules  Some began to join for wrong reasons • Buddha began making rules for order of monks ○ Waited for something to go wrong, then rule made against it  Every rule has a story ○ Things that got a monk expelled  Murder of human  Stealing  Lying about spiritual achievements  Breaking vow of celibacy • Story behind vow of celibacy ○ Young man from wealthy family  Hears Buddha and decides to be monk □ Parents do not allow and goes on hunger strike □ Mother begs him to give them heir  Has sex with mother and becomes pregnant ◊ All about property ◊ Only 1 session ○ Buddha says suffering from having child = greater suffering that keeps you in cycle of samsara • Intercourse = penetration of penis into any carouse by size of sesame seed ○ Punishment for masturbation but not kickedout ○ Not about pleasure, it’s the attachments that come from sex • Buddhist monk = bhikshu = beggar ○ Must finish food by noon and can't eat until dawn next day ○ Medicinal meal = viewed a free • Story behind "close the door" = about man who has woman have sex with ○ Random stories behind each rule ○ Indicate what was on mind of monks • Buddha has large followingof monks ○ Goes around India gathering more followers ○ Arhats are sent out to teach Dharma ○ Buddha attracts kings as donors  Used to go to village and beg for food and wander all over ○ Monks went to one community to stay during rain retreat  Wealthy donors provided food and shelter □ Temporary shelters became first Buddhist monasteries  Monks became more stationary in their lifestyles ○ Head shaving = get rid of sexual desire, robes used to be rags  2 things people could give to monks = food and cloth □ Offered after rainy season ○ Community began as beggers ○ Novice monk  Can't kill  Can't steal  Can't lie about spiritual achievements  Can't have sex  Can't use intoxicants □ Story: monk ran into woman holding alcohol and leadinggoat  Woman said either have sex, drink bottle, killgoat ◊ Or kill herself ◊ Lesser of 3 evils = drink bottle  Led to doing other 2 things  Idea = use of intoxicants leads to others  Can't eat after noon  Can't adorn body (perfume, deodorant, etc.)  Can't attend musical performances  Can't touch gold or silver  Can't sleep on an elevatedbed • King invites Buddha to come back home ○ Doesn't eat ○ Buddha's son isn't born until comes back 6 years later after being enlightened  Wife says he needs birth right  Buddha adorns 6 year old with teaching □ Wants to become monk 1st Part of Class Page 12 □ Wants to become monk □ Makes new rule that need parent's permission before becoming monks • Devadatta = cousin of Buddha = good monk ○ Volunteered to take over for Buddha because Buddha = 70 years old  Buddha doesn't answer anyone until 3rd time □ Answers very harshly ○ Decides to killBuddha and hires archers to shoot him  Fails and sends wildelephant after him □ Ends up bowing down to Buddha □ 3rd time trying to kill Buddha  Has killedarhat nun ○ Decides to set up new order of monks because rules were not strict enough  Live in woods, not monasteries  Live outside/only tents  Use real rags for robes Midterm:  Beg for food 4 Parts  Not going to accept any meat or fish • Terms ○ Buddha says new order/group was fine because in rules but not necessary ○ 2 stories to end of Devadetta • Lists  Decides to give up and forgiveness ○ 4 truths ○ 4 inverted views  Goes off and earth swallows him up into hell ○ Inverted views ○ Reflects 5 Deeds of Immediate Retribution  Killingfather • Quotes from readings  Killingmother ○ Identify ○ Point, interesting  Killingan arhat • Essay  Causing blood flow from Buddha  Causing dissent in the community of monks and nuns Need Blue Book □ Devadetta did last 3 □ If you do any of these 5, go to worst of hells □ Avici Questions • Curse of samsara = do not know what's going to happen next and how we're going to react to it ○ Not good person vs. bad person  Much more complicated • Escape samsara when fully understand that there is no self ○ Four Stages of Path  Stream enterer □ Entered stream that will take you to nirvana □ All future rebirths = human or god □ Willachieve nirvana in 7 livesor less  Once returner □ Understood no self to such a deep level thatwill only be reborn as human 1 more time max  Never returner □ Once deepen levelof insight further, never reborn as human again □ May be reborn as god in form realm  Arhat □ Willenter nirvana at end of current life • Idea of no self = unappealing ○ Contrary to everythingwe have been conditioned to feel about ourselves • Ethics will not get you out of samsara but human lifeis valued ○ Human rebirth = precious because access to Dharma • 4 Inverted Views (misconceptions) ○ What is painful is pleasure  Suffering of change, conditioning = actually sources of pain ○ What is impure is pure  All things that seem wonderful become impure ○ What is impermanent is permanent ○ What is no self is self 1st Part of Class Page 13 Sept. 27 Lecture Thursday, October 18, 2012 11:00 AM The Venerationof the Buddha • Buddha's personal attendant = Ananda ○ Took care of him when Buddha got old ○ Wanted to hear everything that Buddhataught ○ Live in forest together meditating  Buddha says if asked to do so can lived until end of aon □ Wants to teach and live out life before passing to nirvana  Does what needs to do before passing  Amaraha claims he has done what he needed to do ◊ Buddha agrees and will die in 3 months  Earthquake – Ananda comes to see why – Buddha gives long explanation about earthquakes  1 = 1 when Buddha decides to die  Anada asks him not to die  Buddha asked Anada 15 times throughout life about living until end of aon  Viewed as very tragic scene ○ Plays very important role  Not smartest of monks  Very devoted,good person • Buddha asks blacksmith for special meal that only blacksmith could conjure ○ Buddha gets very sick  Tells Ananda that blacksmith is not to blame  Lays down between 2 trees □ Trees immediately blossom • Buddha is dying ○ Many gods come down ○ Says to Ananda that once dead, can get rid of minor rules for monks ○ Gods and monks crying  Given last chance for questions □ "all conditioned things are impermanent" □ "work out your salvation with diligence" • Buddha died ○ Went through realms ○ Reached peak of existence in formless realm  Goes down through levels  Goes to 4th concentration of form realm and dies without rebirth □ Enters nirvana  Existence = physical form of consciousness then gone • Buddha left behind body and things he taught ○ Left instructions to give funeral of universal emperor that father (king) would've given him  Burned coffin ○ Mahakashyapa (monk) wanted to pay homage to Buddhist feet  Buddha waiting to pay last respects  Only he could light fire to coffin and cremate • Relics Believed that when saint is cremated, tiny seeds/pearls are left ○ Believed that when saint is cremated, tiny seeds/pearls are left ○ Local community wants Buddha's relics  Many local communities come and start to go to war over relics □ Divides relics into 8 groups for each community  Bucket, ashes left over ○ Buddha says after he dies, if go on pilgrimage to place born, enlightened, first teaching, and death will be reborn in heaven  Places are blessed ○ Buddha says ashes must be put into stupa  Put in case and buried in mound □ Becomes most important architectural element of Buddhism □ Many, many stupas  84,000 relics  Physical remains of Buddha maintain part of his power □ If circumambulate stupas, get power of Buddha's presence • Mahakashyapa hears negative talk a week after Buddha's death ○ Calls together 500 Arhats to First Great Council  Called to remember what it was that was taught  Council = sangiti (to chant/cite) □ Vinaya = disciplines  Upali = expert on discipline ◊ Becomes collection of monastic code  Keeps all minor rules because Ananda did not ask Buddha which ones to get rid of □ Sutra = discourse  Ananda destined most knowledgeable on all Buddha taught ◊ Told not invited so must become arhat by morning to come to meeting  4 traditional postures of meditation – Sitting – Standing – Walking – Laying  Becomes Arhat in something other than 4 postures  Ananda recites everything Buddhataught ◊ Becomes collection of Buddhist teachings • Veda = eternal ○ Existed always in form of sound  Sages first wrote it down but didn't create it ○ Buddhism has to be able to claim past in order to be significant • Sumedha = yogen (good meditator, can fly, powers) ○ Feels overwhelming joy at name of Buddha  Buddha = Kashyapa  Sees path of Buddha has mud pile □ Uses hair as mat for Buddha  Knows if listen to teachings, can be enlightened today ◊ Thought better if waited until time with no Buddha □ Buddha prophesies that yogen will become Buddha himself  Sumedha practices path for 3 eons ◊ Kalpa = eon ○ This is promise of our Buddha  Moment he decided  Goes back eons  Perfected himself so he could become Buddha when there is no other □ Sense of authority to Buddha's truth □ No reason for a Buddha to come into world as long as teachings of previous Buddha are still available □ No reason for a Buddhato come into world as long as teachings of previous Buddha are still available  Redundant for another to come teach ◊ An amnesia afflicts samsara  Buddha comes, teaches, lasts, eventually forget, all memory of Buddha and teaching gone – Then next Buddhacomes ○ Sumedha = bodhisattva from time he made vow to when becomes Buddha  Person who has vowed to become Buddha  Have compassion □ Could be enlightened but want to help world  Help others figure it out for themselves  Reborn constantly until all traces of Buddha are gone □ Develops a memory ○ Buddha has many stories of past lives  Lessons about karma and relationships  Story of prince Vessantara □ Last rebirth of Buddha before becomes Buddha □ Kingdom has special elephant that brings rain  Give to another country to help with drought  Drought comes to his country but gave away elephant ◊ Exiled into woods with family  Evil priests ask for Vessantara's kids for slaves – Horrible, heartbreakingscene – Wife faints – Asks for wife and gives away – Children escape and go to grandpa,get family together and out of exile □ Ultimate gift = give away own children and wife ○ Jatakas = give past of Buddha and make them into great stories Questions • 4 Inverted Views (4 misperceptions of world) ○ Pleasurable ○ Pure ○ Permanent ○ Self  All things are actually opposite • Biological family entails attachments to world ○ Family with Buddha and monks detaches from world  Must leave families ○ Meant to put on tract to nirvana • Monks begging for food and not touching gold/silver ○ Signifies refusing life of world ○ Monks begging give people opportunity to give and create good karma • Difference between Buddha and Arhat ○ Buddha figures out path to nirvana and achieves it through his own efforts  Path = so long because must accumulate karma to get strength to figure out on own  Buddha goes through stream enterer, never returner, arhat in 1 meditation ○ Arhat must rely on Buddha to teach the path Sept. 28 Discussion Thursday, October 18, 2012 11:44 AM Key Concepts • Ch.6 ○ Tathagathas = all buddhas (p.47)  Talk about four noble truths □ Suffering □ Origin □ Cessation □ Path  Cannot have 2 buddhas □ Competition,no need, world would implode by power of it • Ch. 28 ○ Pratyekabuddha  Solitary enlightened one  Rhino horn □ Should be as solitary as horn □ Studying dharma, renouncing world  Only can have good relationships with other enlightened ones • Ch. 36 ○ Bhiksu = monk that has been ordained ○ Parapariya = author of poem ○ Dharma  Whether there is Buddha or not, always present and true □ Teachings can be forgotten  DegenerateAge • Ch. 16 ○ Maya = Buddha's mother  Gave birth to him from right hip □ Death because womb must be untarnished or broken heart from leaving  Buddha returned to Heaven of 33 to give her dharma Oct. 2 Lecture Thursday, October 18, 2012 11:46 AM Women and Buddhism • What was the status of women at the time of the Buddha in India? • Buddha's mother ○ Tradition depicts that woman's womb = filthy  Doesn't exit through usual unclean route □ Comes out side ○ Many reasons for death  Reborn as male god  Buddha visited her in heaven and taught her the dharma ○ Buddha was raised by mother's stepsister = Mahaprajapeti  Marries beautiful princess, has son and leaves □ When Buddha comes back, ordains son as monk • Women generally only participated in religious practice as a wife ○ Women = protected throughout life (by father, by husband, and by son)  Theme of women needing protection ○ Buddha's stepmotherasks to be a nun but Buddha refuses  Buddha says that women beggers of town cannot be nuns even though husbands left to be monks □ Buddha says that women can achieve enlightenment  Nothing in form doesn't allow □ 3rd time of Ananda asking = Buddha says yes and can becomenuns  Buddha says admittance of womeninto order means teaching can only last 500 years (half the time) • Special rules for nuns to follow = gurudharma ○ Monks are always superior to nun regardless of how long ordained ○ Added hurdle to becoming full nun = probation period ○ A monk may criticize nun, nun cannot criticize monk ○ 111 more vows have to follow  Women can achieve enlightenment but harder and need more strict spiritual guidance  Order of nuns eventually died out in much of Buddhist world • Most powerful stories about suffering = about women ○ Stories about Kisa gotami  Lost husband, newborn, and parents in one day □ Marries a drunk that kills baby □ Falls in love with new man but he gets sick and dies  Buried alive with husband's corpse ◊ Marries head bandit  Buddha ordains her and becomesarhat □ Series of loss that lead her to becomenun  Buddha has nuns that are his disciples • Buddha fell in love with beautiful woman ○ Gave all money from nights of prostitution to Buddha ○ gets sick and dies • Nandah = cousin of Buddha = male ○ Buddha tells him to leave wife and become monk ○ All family = monks.nuns • Physique of Buddha: ○ Fingers are connected, arms extend below knees, retractable penis, golden complexion,smoothskin, one hair in every core of his body, hair all points up, tall and straight every core of his body, hair all points up, tall and straight ○ Nanda hides behind other nuns to see what Buddha/her cousin looks like  Buddha creates very beautiful woman for her to see □ Nanda is jealous of her looks and stares  Watches phantom womanage ◊ Lesson in impermanence  Sees beauty that she envies and what becomesof her • In male-dominatedcommunityof monks, women'sbody is seen as temptation ○ Buddha says do not look at women  If see them, don't talk to them  If talk to you, remain mindful Questions • Aryan = nobility ○ Insight into no self ○ Stream enterer, once returner, never returner, arhat • Monks = self-governing body ○ Seniority determined by how long been a monk • Buddha's miracle = ability to teach • Jataka stories = stories of Buddha's good deeds • Buddha left teaching and relics ○ All stupas break out of 84,000stupas  Fly together under Bodi tree where Buddha achieved enlightenment  Skeleton under tree surrounded by gods □ Relics burst into flame □ Nothing left of Buddha  Mitraya seated in chair after Oct. 4 Lecture Thursday, October 18, 2012 11:49 AM Lay Practice • Lay = all Buddhists who aren't monks or nuns ○ Majority ○ If seek refuge in Three Jewels  Buddha □ doctor  Dharma = teaching □ Verbal teaching □ Realized teaching □ Truths 3 & 4 = 4 Dharma  Cessation  Path □ Actual refuge □ medicine  Sangha = community □ Helpers to refuge □ Nurse ○ If say that 3 times = refuge formula = becomeBuddhists  Ratna = precious □ Three Jewels = precious because hard to find and if found, treasure • Lay vows ○ Taking vow = makes good karma more powerful  When take vow, matterforms inside body □ When fulfill vow, good karma is accumulated  Ex: if vow not to kill anyone, every day of not killing = good karma □ Can give vowsback vs. breaking it  Releases you of negative karma that would happen if broken ○ Vows taken for life  Stealing, killing, lying, sexual misconduct,use of intoxicants □ Can pick and choose between these vows □ Sexual misconduct  Not allowed to have sex with woman protected by another person  During day, near religious element • Buddhist lay people do not meditate ○ 95% of Buddhists have never meditated  Important but lay people do not do it ○ Going to be as good as possible in this lifetime to become monk in another life • Giving = get wealth in future (this lifetime, next, or heaven) ○ Matters who give gift to  Karma more powerful based on object of generosity □ Monks = most powerful karma produced • Good karma = currency in Buddhist culture ○ Monk's responsibility = be pure recipient of gifts ○ Transaction = material currency given to monk • Monks/nuns primary jobs ○ Take care of dead  Performdeath rituals  Performdeath rituals  Take care of ghosts  Job = get you to better rebirth  Able to go good karma for anoht • Relationship between sangha and state ○ Buddha was from royal family ○ Ashoka  Human in previous lifetime  Got sick of killing people □ Wants to hire executioner  Greatest of all Buddhist kings □ Controlled tongue □ Dharmaraja = dharma king  Taught all truths of dharma Questions • Buddha did say women could achieve enlightenment ○ Could become arhats ○ Being a nun = place of protectionfor women ○ Most places, status of monk > nun • Status is based on monk/nun keeps vows, good meditator, and wisdom ○ Teachings taken seriously Pratyekabuddha = solitary enlightened one • Type of Buddhist practitioner that avoids/unable hearing teachings of Buddha ○ By time become arhat, do not rely on teachings of Buddha ○ After enlightened, never teach  Self-possession/solitaryquality • Your responsibility/faultof your karma that one is not heterosexualmale ○ Monk/nun = Ideal lifestyle for those that can handle it  Best way to get to path to nirvana ○ Good karma in order to get on path  Culture deems them inferior/insufficient Oct. 9 Lecture Thursday, October 18, 2012 11:51 AM Meditation • Most Buddhists have not/do not meditate ○ Includes monks and lay people  Meditation = specialty within monastic community  Dharma/teaching = more important to preserve than meditation □ Ideally should go together but tension • Meditation = over-stated ○ Although very important for path to nirvana ○ Bhavana = to cultivate  Reciting, meditating, etc. ○ Dhyana = concentration ○ Samadhi = coming together in harmony • Meditation Theory ○ Our mind is filled with defilements  Ignorance  These defilements can be removed □ Mind can be cleansed of defilements  Method - meditation  Our mind in every day life = too distracted ◊ Cannot be cleansed by itself • 2 Major Types of Meditation (generalized from various types) ○ Serenity meditation  Turn mind into powerful tool  Purpose = develop concentration □ 1 way to develop = Earth device  Get canvas and make a circle of mud in the center ◊ After it dries, sit down and meditate in front of it  Take away and visualize – When distracted, put back, repeat process until can visualize circle perfectly in mind without it being there  Turns into circle of light = sign of access concentration  Seek to develop level of concentration equal to that of form realm or above (first concentration)  Not enough  Envision things such as loss of suffering, love, happiness, etc. □ Concentration on wish to level of strength that gets mind outside of desire realm  Meditating on death □ Death is certain and time of death is uncertain □ Leads to take advantage of this lifetime  Spur action in practice  Meditating on breath  Does not bring about liberation □ Enter into concentrations/realms □ Also need insight ○ Insight meditation  Three Trainings □ Ethics  Foundation of vows that is important in meditation □ Meditation  Serenity ◊ Developing concentration = samadhi  Distraction interrupted by rare moments of meditation ◊ Bring back to singular object ◊ Concentration has physical and mental joy - payoff □ Wisdom  Need to meditate on idea that there is no self □ 6 constituents  Earth - body Form Realm:  Water - liquids 4th concentration  Fire  Wind 3rd concentration 2nd concentration  Space 1st concentration  Consciousness ◊ Eye - sees colors and shapes Places ◊ Ear Form realms ◊ Nose -enter there if develop state of mind to get there ◊ Tongue -god in that realm ◊ Body ◊ Mental consciousness □ 6 things compose who we are  Search for sense of "I"/self ◊ Imagined I = something solid 1st Part of Class Page 22 ◊ Imagined I = something solid  Consciousness lacks sense of permanency that we have in I – Observe absence in consciousness  Take that absence and develop concentration  Insight into no self begins to destroy defilements  Become stream enterer ○ 2 elements of mind  Strength  Sharpness □ Serenity and insight bring together elements of rebirth 1st Part of Class Page 23 Oct. 18 Lecture Thursday, October 18, 2012 10:08 AM The Rise of Mahayana All previous history = basic Buddhism true for all areas and sects • Texts begin to appear ○ Claim to be written/spokenby Buddha despite fact that dead for 400 years • Mahayana = counter-movement ○ Most famous text = Lotus Sutra ○ Lotus Sutra = White Lotus of the True Dharma  Saddharma = True Dharma  Every Lotus Sutra begins with "thus have I heard" □ Sutra = discourse by Buddha □ "I" = Ananda ○ Manjusri = "gentle glory"  Wisest of all bodhisattras  Lotus Sutra references itself □ PreviousBuddha taught it long ago ○ Srzvaka and protyekabuddha was told they could not understand  Both are arhats  Surprised because enlightened □ Buddha said he would reveal new teaching that's most important thing ever taught  5000 lay people left because thought they knew already ○ Buddha's appear into world to teach how to becomeBuddha, not arhat  Main conversationpartner in text = Shariputra □ Significant because wisest of all arhats  Should know this  Buddha predicts Shariputra's enlightenment ◊ Prophesied that he would becomeBuddha ◊ Will become Buddhas of other universes/lands 1. Srzvaka = arhat 2. Portyekabuddha= arhat 3. Bodhisattba = Buddha • Buddha explains concepts with parables in Lotus Sutra ○ Began as being completelyin verse  Changed to prose ○ Ex: children playing in house, don't notice house catches on fire, father notices and is terrified  Children = completelyoblivious because so engrossed in games don't pay attention to dad  Father bribes them with toys - lied □ Not a lie because did it for the best of children  Buddha claims he's like father ◊ Children are so fixated on samsara that don't notice flame  Don't pay attention to suffering  Ekayana = one vehicle  Ekayana = one vehicle  Mahayana = great vehicle – Only vehicle there is – Everybodyfollowing path will go to buddhahood ○ Can becomebodhisattva by hearing one line of Lotus Sutra and like it  Respects, observes,honors Lotus Sutra = playing homage to Buddhas of past □ Follows this then on path to Buddhahood • Buddha claims everything taught up to time of Lotus Sutra = skillful method = upaya ○ Not ultimate thing but helps keep you going ○ When told that reach samsara from arhat stage = skillful method  Arhats come to receive predictions • Stupa comesout of ground when Lotus Sutra is about to be taught ○ As if a spirit is within tomb and talking ○ Buddha opens entrance  Full, living Buddha inside sutra □ Sitting on a throne □ Come in order to hear Lotus Sutra  Buddha sit side by side, present simultaneously in world ◊ Buddha isn't who always thought he was • Why such a change from previous laws? ○ Communityled by monks with no Buddha  Tradition becoming stale?  Communitywithin India believed monks that claimed arhats were not real □ Need to recoverpresence of Buddha even though gone for 400 years ○ Person not satisfied by tradition  Probably monk or nun because knowledge of tradition = clear  Vision? Dream?Reality that needed to be revealed to world?  Claimed that historic truth from Buddha □ Buddha says yes said that but didn't really mean it  Lotus Sutra = real truth  Teaching of all Buddhas of past ◊ Text gives itself an out by illustrating the 5000that walk out on teaching  Give reason for rejection • Hinayana: sravaka and pratyekabuddhas becomearhats ○ Don't accept Mahayana as word of Buddha • Mahayana: great vehicle - bodhisattva become buddhas ○ Lotus Sutra were spoken by Buddha - accept late sutras ○ Minority movementin India  Wrote books Oct. 19 Discussion Friday, October 19, 2012 1:10 PM • Lotus Sutra = important text in the developmentof Buddhism ○ Created mahayana tradition that accepted Lotus Sutra  At first rejected as part of Buddhist doctrine in India □ Spread widely and embraced throughout Asia • Significance of "skillful method"in Lotus Sutra ○ Idea of white lie  Encouraged people on path but not ultimate truth presented yet □ Not the best way presented until Lotus Sutra  Intention of Buddha = still virtuous because taught what could handle • Purpose of the parables in Lotus Sutra ○ Help explain meaning of story ○ Ex: Apparitional arhat parable ○ Ex: drunk man and rich man  Begging even though had jewel sewed in coat whole time ○ Ex: poor man that works for living is told by dad that inherited riches  Knew how to work for something  Reflects skillful method Oct. 23 Lecture Tuesday, October 23, 2012 10:07 AM Questions: • Even the 5,000 that walk out will reach becoming a Buddha eventually • In Mahayana, multiple universe cosmology ○ All universes need Buddha in future  Matriyana = our universe  Still 1 Buddha per universe □ Story identical to each Buddha in each world • Everyone who accepts Lotus Sutra becomes bodhisattva ○ If listen to Lotus Sutra with faith • Buddha taught path that took 7 lifetimes max ○ Attracted to people to dharma with teaching of arhat path  Then could say that it's actually much longer  Like parable: say city is close, really very far away ○ Initially people couldn't grasp following bodhisattva path because too long and difficult The New Buddha(s) • Lotus Sutra is not doctrine, organized ○ Monks must make systematicphilosophy out of it • Naga = top half of body is human and bottom half is snake ○ Translated as dragon ○ Powerful spirits that typically live underwater or underground  Demigod  Have lots of jewels • Enlightenment of women ○ Even an 8 year old nag


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.