PSYCH 101 Chapter 1 Textbook Notes
PSYCH 101 Chapter 1 Textbook Notes
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PHIL 101 Introduction to Psychology Jacqueline Pickrell Spring 2014 Chapter 1 The Nature of Psychology refers to to actions and responses that can be directly observed refers to internal states and processes such as thoughts amp feelings that cannot be measured directly but inferred from observable behavior 6 6 6 66 66 66 Therapists are part of a field known as clinical psychology which is only a subfield of psychology gt Many psychologists have no connection with therapy and instead conduct research in other fields Topics in different subfields often overlap gt some studies focus on bridging subfields 6 66 Psychology s Scientific Approach 1 Science a process that involves systematically gathering and evaluating empirical evidence to answer questions and test beliefs about the natural world gt Empirical evidence evidence gained through experience and observation V People often take mental shortcuts when forming judgements these sometimes serve us poorly 1 We often ignore other alternative explanations for something once we make an assumption regarding one factor and disregard other less obvious factors 3 We have a tendency to display a confirmation bias by selectively paying attention to information that supports what we want to see and ignoring information that downplays or is inconsistent with our conclusions 9 To minimize errors highly controlled conditions are necessary Thinking Critically about Behavior 3 Critical thinking involves taking an active role in understanding rather than absorbing information 3 What makes a claim a fact gt What is the claim gt Who is making it gt What evidence gt Any other possible explanations gt What is the most appropriate conclusion 3 Misconceptions can happen any many people may hold on to them Goals of Psicholo gt Description describe how people behave think and feel gt Explanation understand why we do what we do gt Control test whether proposed explanations are accurate gt Application apply knowledge to enhance human wellfare Basic amp Applied Research 3 see definitions in vocab section 3 Basic research examines how and why people behave think and act the way they do gt May be carried out in labs or real world settings with human participents or other species gt Studies with species are meant to shed light on human behavior gt Some study animal behavior for its own sake 3 Applied research used to design intervention more specific focused action eg some basic research has been utilized to design and implement HIV AIDS prevention programs in parts of the world Psychology s Broad Scope 3 Levels of Analysis behavior and its causes can be examined at the gt biological level brain processes genetic in uences gt psychological level our thoughts feelings amp motives gt environmental level past and present physical and social environments to which we are exposed 1 Mind Body interactions relation between mental processes in the brain and the functioning of other bodily systems gt Nature vs Nurture Perspectives on Behavior tr one or separate gt Early philosophers believed in mind body belief that mind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical laws that govern body separate from the body I How could mind experience sensations or control bodily functions gt believes that mind and body are one and mind is not a spiritual entity I advocated by Thomas Hobbs I helped set the stage for psychology 1 Stage further set byohn Locke and the school of see def1nition gt observation is more valid approach to knowledge than pure reason Early Schools Structuralism and Functionalism 3 First experimental psychology laboratory established by 1832 1920 at the Universi of Leipzig in Germany 3 see def1nition 1 Structuralism utilized introspectionbasic elements of consciousness Participants asked to describe their inner experiences see definition 6 6 66 66 Structuralism attempts to explain movement of hands by how muscles tendons and bone operate Functionalism asks why do we have hands How do they help us gt Wilham James leader in functionalism 3 see definition 3 Sigmund Freud gt used method called free association patients express any thoughts that come to mind forgotten childhood memories Psychoanalysis see def1nition Strong emphasis on childhood sexuality amp aggressive inborn drives VVVV Defense mechanisms I eg Repression keeping unacceptable feelings impulses amp memories in unconscious depths of the mind gt Great controveresy 1 Modern Psychodynamic Theory gt Downplay role of hidden sexual and aggresive motives gt focuses more on how early relationships w family and other caregivers shape views people make of themselves and others 3 see definition 3 Behavioral perspective has roots in school of British empiricism see def1nition gt According to John Locke human mind is a blank slate upon which experiences are written gt human nature is shaped purely by environment 3 Ivan Pavlov gt experiment with dogs gt learned to salivate when a bell was rang in association w food I Edward Thorndike O organism learn through the consequences of our actions 0 law of effect responses followed by positive consequences more likely to occur negative less likely 3 see def1nition gt John B Watson I led movement strongly opposed against mentalism of previous psych theories gt BF Skinner I real causes of behavior reside in the outer world I study of rats and pigeons 6 66 I radical behaviorism through social engineering society can harness the power of environ to change behavior in bene cial ways 0 considered extreme Cognitive Behaviorism see def1nition 6 6 6 6 6 66 66 66 66 66 9 90 see def1nition rejecting humans being controlled by forces beyond our control unconscious and mere reactors to our environ Inborn force self actualization the reaching of one s individual potential Emphasis on personal choice responsibility personal growth and positive feelings of self worth Meaning of existence is in our own hands positive psychology movement emphasizes study of human strengths ful llment and optimal living 6 66 6 66 6 66 6 66 see def1nition nature of the mind examines how the mind organizes elements of experience into a whole perception gt whole is greater than sum of its parts Analysis of nature of attentionreason make decisions solve problems form perceptions and produce understand language Cognitive Neuroscience 6 66 6 66 6 6 66 66 see def1nition how presence of people affect and in uence our behavior thoughts and feelings gt presence refers I physical presence eg in a group I implied presence eg preparing for a party and are aware that people will be interested in how you look I imagined presence eg driving a car and slowing down because you believe there are police around Overlaps with other perspectives Culture enduring values beliefs behaviors and traditions shared by a large group of people and assed from one generation to the other gt see def1nition gt for culture to endure each new generation must internalize adopt the norms and values of the group as their own gt Socialization the process through which culture is transmitted to new members and internalized by them Cultural Psychology see def1nition 1 Important difference b W cultures is whether the emphasis is on individualism vs collectivism gt North America emphasizes individualism focus on personal goals self identity based primarily on one s own attributes achievements gt In many Asian African South American Cultures emphasize collectivism individual goals are subverted to those of the group and personal identity is largely defined by the ties that bind one to the extended family and other social groups see def1nition What brain regions neural circuits bodily chemicals enable us to feel love pleasure and depression to read study and feel hunger gt Behavioral Neuroscience aka physiological psychology 3 Karl Lashley gt trained rats to run mazes and then measured how damage to certain brain areas affected their learning memory 3 Donald C Hebb gt proposed that changes in connections b W nerve cells in the brain provide basis for learning memory and perception gt Inspired research which led to discovery of see def1nition Behavior genetics see definition 6 6 66 66 Evolutionary Psychology gt Darwin s concept of natural selection see def1nition gt seeks to explain how evolution shaped modern behavior gt stress that human mental abilities and behavioral tendencies evolved along with a with a changing body gt attempt to explain human social behavior Using Levels of Analysis to Integrate the Perspectives gt biological and brain processes genetic in uences gt psychological level our thoughts feelings motives gt environment level past and current physical and social environment to which we are exposed 3 Interaction see def1nition Psychology Today 3 Modern Psych is diversified in terms of geography ethnicity and gender 1 American Psychological Association APA founded in 1892 is the largest individual psychological association in the world gt 150000 members amp 56 divisions 6 66 American Psychological Society APS gt newer organization consisting primarily of researchers gt grown to 20000 members Vocabulag 6 6 66 66 6 66 6 66 6 66 6 66 research designated to solve or examine speci c practical problems research designed to obtain knowledge for the sake of obtaining knowledge Behavioral neuroscience subfield of psychology that examines brain processes and other physiological functions which underlie our behavior sensory experiences emotions and thoughts Behavioral perspective view that places emphasis on how environ and learning experiences affect control behavior Behavior genetics scientific study of the role of genetic inheritance in behavior school of psych that emphasizes effects of learning and environmental control on behavior and believes that the focus of psychology should be on observable behavior Biological Perspective view that focuses on in the role of biological factors in behavior in addition to biochemical brain processes as well as genetic and evolutionary factors Biopsychology subfield of psych that focuses on biological foundation of behavior thought and emotion 17th century school of thought championed by John Locke which states that all the contents of the mind are gained as experiences through the senses Clinical psychology subfield of psychology that focuses on the study and treatment of mental disorders Cognitive behaviorism behavioral approach that utilizes cognitive concepts believing that the environment in uences behavior by affecting our thoughts and giving us info Cognitive neuroscience area of psychology that intersects the subfields of cognitive psych and physiological psych and examines brain processes that underlie mental activity Cognitive perspective view that emphasizes humans as information processors and problem solvers focuses on mental processes that in uence behavior area of psych that specializes in studying mental processes such as thinking memory planning reasoning attention and perception Cultural crosscultural psychology subfield of psych that explores how culture is transmitted to its member and examines psychological similarities and differences that occur between people diverse cultures Developmental psychology subfield of psych that examines human physical psychological and social development across the life span O 66 O 00 Evolutionary psychology eld of study that focuses on the role of evolutionary processes esp natural selection in the development of adaptive psychological mechanisms and social behavior in humans Experimental psychology subfield of psych that focuses on basic processes such as learning sensory systems eg vision and hearing perception and motivational states eg hunger an early school of American psych that focused on the functions of consciousness and behavior in helping organisms adapt to their environment and satisfy their needs a psychological view that emphasizes personal freedom choice and self actualization IndustrialOrganizational psychology subfield of psychology that focuses on people s behavior in the workplace Interaction an interaction occurs when the way in which one factor in uences the behavior of another factor depends on the presence of the first factor Natural Selection evolutionary process where characteristics that increase the likelihood of survival and reproduction are preserved in the gene pool and thereby become more common in a species over time chemical substances that are released from the axons of one neuron travel across the synaptic space and bind to specially keyed receptors in another neuron results in either excitatory or inhibitory signal Norms rules often unwritten that specify what behavior is acceptable expected for members of a specific group culture Personality psychology subfield that focuses on nature of human personality Positive psychology movement view that emphasizes the study of human strengths fulfillment and optimal living Psychoanalysis a psychological theory developed by that places emphasis on internal and primarily unconscious causes of behavior focuses on how personality processes in uence behavior unconscious impulses defenses and con icts Psychology the scientific study of behavior and the mind Social psychology subfield of psych that examines people s feelings thoughts and behavior in relation to the social world Sociocultural perspective view that emphasizes the role of cultural and the social environment in in uencing behavior thoughts and emotions early German school of psychology established by that attempted to study the structure of the mind by breaking it down into its most basic components These were then believed to be sensations