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Chapter 2 Biological Foundations

by: Siân L'Roy

Chapter 2 Biological Foundations Psych 2314

Marketplace > Tarrant County College District > Psychology (PSYC) > Psych 2314 > Chapter 2 Biological Foundations
Siân L'Roy


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About this Document

How heredity and genetics play a role in a child's development. Also how certain negative factors can effect a child's birth and life.
Developmental Psychology
Dr. Vince Limbo
Class Notes
developmental psychology
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Siân L'Roy on Thursday August 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2314 at Tarrant County College District taught by Dr. Vince Limbo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Tarrant County College District.


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Date Created: 08/11/16
Chapter II: Biological Foundations Heredity  Genotype o Complete set of genes  Phenotype o Genetic instructions plus environmental influences o Observational traits Behavioral Genetics  Branch of genetics that deals with inheritance of  o Behavioral traits o Psychological traits  Polygenic Inheritance o “Either­or” vs. “Range of outcomes”  Identical twins o Monozygotic  Fraternal twins o Dizygotic  Adoption  Heredity and environmental interact dynamically throughout development  Clay Analogy o Heredity provides the clay of life o Experience does the sculpting  Genotype­Phenotype Link Complex o  Teenage girls menstruate earlier under stress  Genes can influence the kind of environment to which a person is exposed  Niche­picking­ differences between siblings (reading vs. being active)  Environmental influences typically make children within a family different o Family environment affects each child in a unique way Influences on Prenatal Development­ Stress  Person’s physical and psychological responses to threatening or challenging situations  Chronic and Extreme Stress can lead to  o Premature births o Low birth weight Teratogens­Agent(s) that increases the likelihood of abnormal prenatal development (e.g.  tobacco, alcohol, lead, mercury, caffeine, cocaine, heroin, aspirin) Chapter II: Biological Foundations  Alcohol o Fetal Alcohol Syndrome o Leading cause of retarded mental development in the United States The Impact of Teratogens  Depends on the genotype of the organism  Changes over the course of prenatal development  Affects a specific aspects of prenatal development  Depends on the dosage  ???­Unknown Infant Mortality  15 industrialized nations have lower infant mortality that the United States o Race­ Shared biological characteristics o Ethnicity­ Shared social characteristics o Ethnocentrism­ To look at situations from one’s own racial or cultural prespective


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