Chapter 2 Biological Foundations
Chapter 2 Biological Foundations Psych 2314
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Siân L'Roy on Thursday August 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2314 at Tarrant County College District taught by Dr. Vince Limbo in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Tarrant County College District.
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Date Created: 08/11/16
Chapter II: Biological Foundations Heredity Genotype o Complete set of genes Phenotype o Genetic instructions plus environmental influences o Observational traits Behavioral Genetics Branch of genetics that deals with inheritance of o Behavioral traits o Psychological traits Polygenic Inheritance o “Eitheror” vs. “Range of outcomes” Identical twins o Monozygotic Fraternal twins o Dizygotic Adoption Heredity and environmental interact dynamically throughout development Clay Analogy o Heredity provides the clay of life o Experience does the sculpting GenotypePhenotype Link Complex o Teenage girls menstruate earlier under stress Genes can influence the kind of environment to which a person is exposed Nichepicking differences between siblings (reading vs. being active) Environmental influences typically make children within a family different o Family environment affects each child in a unique way Influences on Prenatal Development Stress Person’s physical and psychological responses to threatening or challenging situations Chronic and Extreme Stress can lead to o Premature births o Low birth weight TeratogensAgent(s) that increases the likelihood of abnormal prenatal development (e.g. tobacco, alcohol, lead, mercury, caffeine, cocaine, heroin, aspirin) Chapter II: Biological Foundations Alcohol o Fetal Alcohol Syndrome o Leading cause of retarded mental development in the United States The Impact of Teratogens Depends on the genotype of the organism Changes over the course of prenatal development Affects a specific aspects of prenatal development Depends on the dosage ???Unknown Infant Mortality 15 industrialized nations have lower infant mortality that the United States o Race Shared biological characteristics o Ethnicity Shared social characteristics o Ethnocentrism To look at situations from one’s own racial or cultural prespective