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Cell Bio (BIO 2600) Notes, Week 1

by: Reena Mathew

Cell Bio (BIO 2600) Notes, Week 1 BIO 2600

Marketplace > Wayne State University > BIO 2600 > Cell Bio BIO 2600 Notes Week 1
Reena Mathew

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Covers Ch 1- Cells: The Fundamental Units of Life
Intr To Cell Biology
Dr. Jyoti Nautiyal
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Reena Mathew on Thursday August 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 2600 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Jyoti Nautiyal in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 08/11/16
Cell- Basic/smallest unit of life Cells- discovered in 1665 by Robert Hooke Schleiden & Schwann proposed the Cell Theory Cell Theory- 1. All organisms are composed of cells 2. Cells are the smallest living things 3. Cells arise only from pre-existing cells All cells today represent a continuous line of descent from the first living cells Cells come in a variety of shapes and sizes, and chemical requirements, based on that they have different types of functions (ex: epithelial cells, adipose cells, sperm cells, leukocytes (white blood cells- provide immunity, different because of gene expression), red blood cells-transport oxygen, contain hemoglobin) Some cells become so specialized that they can no longer reproduce Leeuwenhoek – simplest lens microscope All cells begin with the same genetic expression, but as they move from one state to another, they express different genes and produce different proteins which results in a different function WBC do not use actin and myosin and don’t express them, but they express the genes important for producing antibodies Cells differentiate to give rise to specialized cells Atomic details of macromolecules, as shown in the last two panels, are usually beyond the power of the electron microscope Micrometers vs millimeter Know ranges of cell sizes Micrometer= (1 um= 10^-6m) Know what a nanometer is (1 nm= 10^-9 m) Angstrom unit= (1 am= 10^-10 m) Microscope not very powerful in terms of magnification unlike electron microscope Fluorescence microscope- uses fluorescent dye to stain the sample, sends a specific wavelength of light that reaches the sample and emits light, filter light from visible range, can find interactive partners in the cell (to look at fine details) Light microscope- preparation of specimen very easy, don’t have to kill specimen Electron microscope- very expensive, requires special preparation for specimen and must not be alive - Transmission- beam of electrons produce light to scan image, through the specimen (to look inside) - Scanning- scans the surface and generates the image of the specimen (looks at surface) All of the cells all have a basic chemistry (DNA- storehouse of all information, can be replicated/duplicated) In a normal cell it has DNA which leads to the formation of RNA (a process called transcription), RNA carries information the same code as DNA and converts it to proteins which results in specific amino acids DNA contains all the commands, proteins are the “executioners” Basic structural similarities 1. Nucleoid or nucleus where DNA is located (transcription) 2. Cytoplasm (translation) a. Semifluid matrix of organelles and cytosol 3. Ribosomes (part RNA/part protein) (“universal organelles”)- must be present to sustain life a. Synthesize proteins 4. Plasma membrane a. Phospholipid bilayer Endomembrane System - Series of membranes throughout the cytoplasm - Divides cell into compartments where different cellular functions occur - One of the fundamental distinctions between eukaryotes & prokaryotes Prokaryotic Cells - Simplest organisms - Lack a membrane-bound nucleus o DNA is present in the nucleoid - Cell wall outside of plasma membrane - Do contain ribosomes (not membrane-bound organelles) - Have archaea & bacteria Go over differences Animal cell parts vs plant cell parts & their functions Plant cells- have cell walls, plasmodesmata, vacuole, actin filament microtubules, chloroplasts Prokaryotes reproduce very quickly and evolve rapidly Involved in protein degradation- lysosomes (do the breaking down) in plants & animals, destroy foreign matter & waste, arise from Golgi apparatus Mitochondria & chloroplasts have their own DNA, create ATP, contain double membrane structures, special because they are thought to have been prokaryotic cells that engulfed another and did not consume them, but worked together with the host cell –Endosymbiosis - Mitochondria- extensive folding, inner membrane has cristae (folds), produce ATP - Chloroplasts- grana- stacks of thylakoids Centrioles- use the cytoskeleton, produce filaments, create spindle fibers (attach the chromosomes and allow its distribution), two bodies perpendicular to each other— with matrix proteins around them—centrosome Long protein fibers called microtubules extend from the centrioles forming spindle fibers Peroxisome- get rid of toxins Cytoplasm- substance that has 2 parts (cytosol- part that is not in membrane, gel, cytoskeleton- made up of 3 different types of “threads” that adds support to the whole cell actin filaments and microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules) Extracellular matrix- gloss over the cell, secretes glycoproteins, protective layer over the cell surface _______ Transcription gives rise to mRNA and different proteins -  Produced: in nucleus of cell: During transcription, RNA polymerase makes a copy of a gene  from the DNA to mRNA  Role: a chemical "blueprint" for a protein product. carries coding information to the sites of  protein synthesis: the ribosomes Smooth ER- more dominant for cells with specific functions that are more pronounced such as detoxification (liver cells) Rough ER- plays important role in protein production ER- maze of interconnected space enclosed by a membrane Rough ER  Golgi apparatus  outside Golgi apparatus- packages proteins Cell connections - Tight junctions- connect plasma membrane (no leakage) - Anchoring- connect cytoskeleton (desmosomes) - Communicating- chemical/electrical signals Cell synthesizes protein hormone and uses it outside Cis face- enter golgi apparatus Trans face- exit golgi apparatus Muscle cells contain a lot of mitochondria Where did eukaryotes come from? - Eukaryotic cells arose from the symbiotic incorporation of prokaryotic cells by a proto- eukaryotic cell. As time passed, life became more complex MODEL ORGANISMS- last section of the chapter, organisms ideal for studying - Molecular biologists have focused on E. coli - Brewer’s yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae)is a simple eukaryotic cell - Arabidopsis “Rockcress” has been chosen out of 300,000 species as a model plant - The world of animals is represented by a fly, a worm, a fish, a mouse, and the human species - Comparing genome sequences reveals life’s common heritage o Human baby & mouse have white patches on their foreheads from the gene Kit required for the development of pigment cells Know model organisms and specific names, which # of genes is highest & lowest - Homo sapiens (humans) – 30,000 genes (highest) - Mus musculus (mouse) – 30,000 genes (highest) - Arabidopsis thaliana (plant, “rockcress”) – 29,000 genes - Caenorhabditis elegans (roundworm) – 21,000 genes - Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) – 15,000 genes - Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) – 6600 genes - Escherichia coli (bacteria) – 4300 genes (lowest) - Fish


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