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Earth Science, chapter 7

by: Hang

Earth Science, chapter 7 Earth Science 1100

UWF - Pensacola

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About this Document

Chapter 7
Planet Earth
Cristina Millan
Class Notes
Earth Science
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hang on Thursday August 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Earth Science 1100 at University of West Florida - Pensacola taught by Cristina Millan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Planet Earth in Earth Sciences at University of West Florida - Pensacola.

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Date Created: 08/11/16
Chapter 7: Plate Tectonics 1. Earth’s Interior - Earth’s interior consists of three main layers based on composition  Crust - rich in silicon and oxygen (aka silicates)  Continental crust - thicker, less dense  Oceanic crust - thinner, more dense  Mantle - contains more iron and magnesium  More dense than both types of crust  Core - mostly iron and nickel  Outer - liquid iron o Generates magnetic field, which sometimes flip-flops  Inner - solid iron and nickel o High pressures keep it in the solid form - Earth’s interior consists of two main layers based on properties  Lithosphere  Behaves rigidly  Crust and upper mantle  Asthenosphere  Flows as a soft solid  Upper mantle 2. Evidence for Plate Tectonics - Alfred Wegener compiled evidence for continental drift based on:  Fit of the continents  Identical fossils found on land separated by the sea  Similar geologic features found on land separated by the sea  Evidence of past glaciers found on land now far from the poles - But the hypothesis of continental drift was not accepted since it could not explain how or why continents moved - Harry Hess later proposed the theory of sea-floor spreading  A chain of underwater volcanoes exists in the middle of the ocean (known as mid-ocean ridges)  As continents drift apart, new ocean floor forms in between as lava cools at the mid-ocean ridges and pushes the plates apart  Evidence is seen in the magnetic stripes in the sea floor  As new ocean floor forms, the iron-rich minerals inside align with the magnetic field  But sometimes, the Earth’s magnetic poles flip-flop 3. Theory of Plate Tectonics - Movement is now explained by the theory of plate tectonics  Earth’s outer shell is broken into rigid plates that move  Plate boundaries are identified by earthquakes and volcanoes  Plates interact along their boundaries


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