History, week 4 notes
History, week 4 notes BIO 311C
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Date Created: 08/12/16
HIST TEST TWO End of Revolutionary war: 1775-1781 (1783) English have idea that southern states are loyal—real rebellion is in the north English come up with the southern strategy, English army = small, recruit german mercenaries, but they still need more soldiers Send English armies to southern, American loyalists will join English army and we can then turn north and crush rebels in north At first English do well and take control of port citiessome americans join English army but not many nd English form three armies in south: 1 army is field army of thousands, 2 army is small unit on horseback, 3 army is made of americans that are loyal As England gets close to frontier, they find Scots-Irish and borderers both hate English, don’t like anybody ]commander of one army says we will burn frontier, people on mountains begin to form military units First to cross is English army and forced to fight at king’s mountain: flat on top, steep hill Over mountain men (borderers, etc.) get to flat surface and English army is gone (started new type of rev war war is grim, not like north where they have a gentleman’s war) English army finds American armyamerican army picks Cowpen for battle field—several revenues where men can “disappear” American put soldiers behind hill—english army cant see them, put raw militia in front line where English are headed—commander tells them to shoot twice then run away from English Further behind is a second line of American soldiers comprised of their best soldiers English says full charge at americans English are shot to pieces by second line of American soldiers only 30 men survive in English (second eng army destroyed now) Guildford courthouse: English army vs. American English win but lose 25% of army, English army retreats to coast where navy can support them, but English army sent orders from North Caroline to NYC— begin march Then tell English army to go to Chesapeake bay Port at Yorktown, English army moves down James Pennsylvania, but americans block land and trap English, eventually English navy arrives and so does French navy—huge naval engagement, but inconclusive English fleet seals away October 18, 1781: English army surrenders at Yorktown In 1783—treaty of paris ends war…part of treaty=English have to recognize American independence By end of war, some 80,000 english loyalists exile themselves—many go to Nocascosha in Canada, their property is confiscated, especially in Georgia where many were loyalists Janet Montgomery—her husband=Richard M, he was a rare man…served as officer in English army knew how English army fought Janet=very upset with Richard and believes she wont see him again Richard hands his patriotic lapel? To her…”if you tell me to stay, I will throw away my honor,etc” Janet agrees to let him go to war Richard will conquer montreal and leave army in Quebec, but he dies Janet is in NY in 1776 when English invadesshe isn’t allowed to leave, wears widows weeds (black) and liberty cap (ancient symbol of ancient greeks)… english soldiers confront janet but she would say nothing Her fame spreads bc she defys English tyranny (walking around alone) 1789: George Washington goes to Janets house o Republican: says she is a “living symbol of blood of American Rev” o Washington creates presidents and they want to meet/greet janet? Andrew Jackson—seventh president, dirt poor fought at age 14—wanted to meet janet but she is dead Wants to touch her hand bc it is a sainted relic (religious artifact) Founding fathers know they have problems—need ties that bind americans together (create history) mystic cords of memory—Lincoln says this will bind them Pantheon: ancient Rome Gods/goddesses—go to temple Pantheon=temple dedicated to all the gods/goddesses Pantheon—term has become “your hall of heroes, cherished members” Founding fathers create, our pantheon, like second religion Need shared sense of ideas—Janet = one of first people in pantheon Republic=man or woman of republic who loves republic Look to rome for examples—civic virtue and citizens in Rome Obey laws: shared sense of ideals and morality—must obey laws in order to be united 1. Standing armies: dangerous, envisioned a very small standing military. Every male of age would be in army. Sam adams—Christian Sparta 2. Freedom of dissent/speech: vital to republic 3. Religious liberty: no church of English at federal level=no federal church… had government religion at state level 4. Natural rights At this point, America is deep in debt Dutch, French loan money…want payback in hard money (gold and silver) Government prints paper money backed by nothing print enourmous amounts which increases inflationprice of goods skyrocketed 1783: americans paper money is basically valuelessgovernment wont take money for tax purposes .1783 Newburg conspiracy: Negotiations in final stages—english army in NYC bc war not fully over American army at newburg (George Washington leads) American government needs to decide who to payin 1783 soldiers at newburg hadn’t been paid by government in two years, soldiers get angry, conspiracy is born Conspiracy is widespread, Washington army wants to overthrow government and replace with military government (believe military is more efficient) Conspiracy knows they need Washington on their side to it to work Rumors spread about conspiracy—washington army up to no good Washington receives anonymous letter to go to newburg on march 15,1783 Washington writes speech and so do congressmen (doesn’t read congressman speech)goes to newburg and finds several hundred soldiers Washington is a poor public speaker bc he believes a man shouldnt show emotion during speech—no inflection, monotone Remind them he served army for 6 years Talking about who wrote summons to washings thinks there is a secret plot from NY where English are If you rebel, you will throw away reputation says Washington People advocating overthrow of government… By doing the right thing you will show why you are a celebrated army says Washington If we didn’t have good men, we will never see how great country could be in future Washington didn’t sway them He pulls out congressman’s paper, but cant read it bc he cant see…never wanted to show people he needed glasses bc that shows weakness… eventually puts on glasses The crowd begins to cry and Washington has broken rebellion and conspiracy is over Washingtonmilitary is under civil authority ** Congress meeting in Annapolis George Washington is coming Washington is coming to congess—people believe he would be “ideal king” Washington hands over parchmenthands over all of his authority (hit Europeans hard) George III says if this is true then Washington is greatest man alive Washington admired Cincinnatus (an ancient legendary Roman figure— institution called The Dictator When there was a real crisis, Romans had office of dictator for six months— can do anything to meet emergency There was an outside invasion—choose a poor yeoman named Cincinnatus (when his term is done, he gives up power and goes back to plowing fields… like Washington) Washington retires from military and is done with all public duties in 1783 Articles of confederation: original governing document during war, like constitution 1777-1789: replaced with constitution in 1789 Provided a weak central government All thirteen states had one vote and all had to agree (unanimous vote) No strong chief executive position Under articles, no standing army, no right to directly tax americans (if need money had to ask individual states), no federal judiciary system, no enforcement Most power resides in states bc don’t want to replicate English monarchy/government Northwest Ordinance 1787: Old northwest = ohio, Indiana area Ordinance provided mechanism to add new states and the new states are equal to old states In new England, many don’t want to add states and thought new states shouldn’t have as many privileges as old states Ordinance provides mechanism: when population is 5,000 it can apply for territorial status (moving in direction of becoming a state)population is 60,000 then you can apply to be a state congress votes if they should become a state Purposefully made to be a slow and gradual process to become a state (gave state its own character) 1850 California applies for statehood and ruins mechanism bc in 1848 gold is found and population in California is not gradual at all According to northwest ordinance: any states from old NW is slave free. Only applies here! Viginia votes yes to ordinance which is surprising since they had slaves When family moves, would tend to move west west fills up by people from places like MA where they are hostile to slavery Natural Rights: slavery In north fades God given rights that no government can take away Higher vs positive law: o Positive: laws humans make to govern ourselves (constitution) o Higher: laws that god has ordained, cant and wont be changed Any government that passes positive law that isn’t higher law makes that government illegitimate “antiginy”—play? Thomas Jefferson/ George Washington (Virginians) had many slaves, believed in natural rights Economically dependent on slaves Washington decides slavery is incompatible frees slaves at end of his life Jefferson never fr/es his slaves when he dies Northern states on way to abolishing slavery MA/Pennsylvania Gradual emancipation…MA abolishes slavery before Pennsylvania If you served with Washington armies in north=more likely to fight with black soldiers than in south (in south basically ever happened) In south, too many slaves to arm for war Prince Easterbrook runs out to the English at Lexington handbill circulated listing those that have been killed and wounded Prince Easterbrook (negro) shows up on handbill Women and Republic: Women were second class citizens No property rights (unless inherited), if you get married, husband takes over Believe women are born more virtuous than men—women are guardians of public morality: responsible for passing on virtues to children (their job) Under French republic, believe the same thing Shay’s rebellion: 1786-1787 US is broke—during war, states borrowed heavily (including MA) Hard money (gold and silver) is hard to find use bartering (pay in chickens, etc) but banks/govt want real payments Banks foreclose on lots of farms Government needs money, so MA raises taxes, almost no real money in circulation Farmers are pissed—1200 farmers go against state government of MA Daniel Shay=one leader, want taxes to go down and banks to stop foreclosing Not too bloody, few killed, government MA calls out local militia Springfield, MA had arsenal: place where weapons are stockpiled Shay and men don’t take arsenal…rebellion fades and in the end MA lowers taxes and stops foreclosure 1787 rebellion is gone, doesn’t spread to other states But, during these months, central government (Philadelphia) doesn’t do much, they “talk” and by end of rebellion they did nothing still (proved to be powerless during crisis) articles of confederation are too weak Annapolis convention: Maryland 5 staes send delegates and were supposed to discuss financial affairs— start talking about defects of articles and call for second convention in Philidelphia to fix problems of articles in 1787 Constitutional Convention: (not original named this bc they were supposed to only change articles, not replace) Summer of 1787, some guys show up late/some leave early (55 guys)— very few men stay the whole time (Hamilton, Madison, and few others stay whole time) 12/13 states are there bc Rhode Island doesn’t come (RI is famous for saying no) MA newspaper “RI not being there is joyous” Ask Washington to be president of convention—adams, Patrick henry not there “whatever happened inside building, stayed in building” and weren’t allowed to take notes—remain a secret Three delegates break rules: especially James Madison From start, delegates knew articles wouldn’t survive Virginia plan (big states) vs. NJ plan (small states) Basic disagreement: how to set up congress (articles=1 congress) Virginia plan: want two different groups of congress, amount of legislatures were based on number of voting malesmore votesmore powerful NJ plan: under articles, each state gets one vote, this is what NJ wants regardless of population Several delegates leave bc think nothing is going to get done Form super committee—ben franklin is a delegate from Pennsylvania and is put in charge of committee and come up with the great compromise Great compromise: senate (amount of senators from state is always two) and house of representative (based on popula tion) Southern states want slaves to be counted as if they were voters (but cant vote) bc more population means more legislators Northern states smaller population and north says no to slaves counting as voters Washington takes delegates delegates trout fishing at valley forge: talks to them about duty, honor, country (after their break, delegates go back) 3/5 compromise: Counts 3 out of 5 slaves as voterssouth more powerful o Clause: congress won’t interfere with slavery for twenty years, then congress can interfere they finally agree on constitution—delegates sign o constitution goes to states to see if they will adopt (only 9 must agree and it becomes law of the land), others can stay out of union or join later o many americans are unhappy bc strong chief executive position, stronger central government, direct taxation, enforcement mechanism (Henry, Sam Adams are not happy) men who are for constitution (federalists) vs. men opposed to constitution (anti-federalist) federalist—alexander Hamilton anti: Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry: say strong government that has unlimited power of government Hamilton believes government should be powerful, don’t need bill of rights bc were all Americans New Hampshire = ninth vote James Madison decides we need bill of rights him and others create list of rights=first ten amendments of the constitution o Bill of rights stands as a whoth: all are important equally o Officially adopted in 1791: 13 state, joins union which is Rhode Island (the no state) Judiciary Act: 1791 ? End of articles says Canada can automatically join the US… Presidents: chief executive: George Washington (president of convention) Goes to Virginia to hide Electoral college set up—vote on first president and made sure Washington won Ask him to go to NYC…even though he doesn’t want to, he goes bc it is his public duty Washington understands he will create precedence: sets a pattern for future presidents to follow o Must decide how he will get to NYC to take oath of office (walk, ride carriage, or ride horseback) rides in carriage, some americans are mad bc it seems like he is trying to act important Washington says there must be a “majesty” about the office to be equal to other countries o Most presidents follow this (present day ride in limo) o One president breaks with tradition (walks) and some others follow o One rides on horseback, armed (Andrew Jackson Washington adds “so help me god” at end of speech (future presidents follow) Then Washington gives inaugural address—gets over with quickly (becomes animated/emotional for once during speech) o First thing he says is “this is the worst day of my life” o God got us our independence from England…god has chosen us George Washington: 1789-1797 Speech: o We’re going to be government for whole county o No separate views no political parties o In end, parties are greatest threat o Fails to prohibit political parties factions are too powerful o Must treat everyone fairlyvirtuous people are happy people o “proprietors smiles of heaven”…Washington believes in higher law (Gods law) o “smiles of heaven”—God is happy with what youre doing o Any country that doesn’t obey God wont have smiles, if you turn away from being virtuous, no more smiles o “experiment entrusted to American people”—God has entrusted experiment o Experiment=republic form of government o Finally, this may be last attempt to see if mankind is capable of self- government o Experiment for all of humanity o American people want a mission o “Washington practiced his life”—doesn’t go to college, kept commonplace book: book of self help o Though man/woman needed to control passion—present cold-face to world o Had ferocious temper—tried to control o “marble man” –other side of him that is “fun” o Rome is center story—want to relive story o “to be prepared for war—preserve peace”free people must be armed people and must be self-sufficientbut, Americans have almost no manufacturing base! All essential products to wage war must be imported from Europeans o Washington says we need manufacturing base o Signs bill into law militia acts: males 18-45 within six months need good musket, belt, bayonet, when called to service o Militita act 1792: ordered every male citizen to get a gun o Do this bc standing army is smallmodern version of early roman republic o Washington must pick cabinet secretaries Sec of state: considered most important Sec of state worried about diplomacy Alexander Hamilton: first secretary of treasury Thomas Jefferson: first secretary of state Hamilton: born in Caribbean, to single mother Single mother=doomed for poverty At age 10, works at import/export agency, in charge of finances (good at economics) Decided he needed to go to collegegoes to English colony of NY Enrolls in King College (present day Columbia) at age 14 Doesn’t finish degree bc he bcomes Patriot and joins Washington army as an officer in Rev war He is a natural born leader and fighter Washington and Hamilton have a father/son relationship Job number one as sec of treasury: fix American economy Jefferson: born in virgiinia, into one of the richest families Mortality rate very highsurrounded by death Goes to college of William and Mary Dad dies when he is young By age of 20—senior male of his family and inherits property. He is a hardened man Presents himself as one dimensional, but has many layers (never a soldier) Will do anything to further interest/power of US no matter what Needs to find wife (not good with women) Had weird belief that women were his equals—thought he was bad with women but women actually love that he treats them this way Eventually has six kids with wife, but wife dies during birth of sixth child As wife is dying, she copies down quote from novel they loved, her handwriting begins to fade and Jefferson finishes the quote in his handwriting as she dies Wrote many important documents Hamilton/Jefferson are brilliant, but disagree with each other: Hamiliton: Federalist party—believe in realism: o Realism: believe unchanging human-nature (all people across time and civilization share same nature). Certain attributes that cant be changed in human nature o We need cities/manufacturing, build a modern economy Jefferson: Jeffersonian—idealism: o Idealism: we can change human nature for better or worse, given right environment we can change humanity o Believes they must have a nation of farmers (agrarian future—small yeoman farmers) Forrest McDonald: o Federalist: he understands humans are good/evil, but not everybody has same mixture of good and bad (mixed motives) o Jeffersonian: only way we can do this is provide a good environment and good education Bank Controversy: o Hamilton: first job is to repair economy—owe lots of money to Europeans o Writes three principle manifestos: o One is on banking: need central bank to control our environment (bc English has band of England) believed this is what made england powerful o Finds “necessary and proper clause”—says congress can do whatever necessary to further power of states Implied power vs strict construction: o Hamilton comes up with implied powers: says they can make a state bank bc the constitution doesn’t say they cant o Jefferson comes up with strict construction—words in constitution mean exactly what it says and nothing more—and says there is no such thing has implied power o Washingotn decides the bank will work, however Jeffersonians aren’t happy o Create bank of US with a 20 year charter (bank will go out of existence if it doesn’t work)…(Federal reserve: third bank of US that we currently have) US is extremely weak: weak military and economy—nothing like Europe French Revolutionary War: 1789-1799: As war progresses, eventually becomes a world war Government of France spending too much money (government run by aristocratic elites) Vast majority of people in France = peasants Government keep raising taxes on peasants Limit on how much you can tax citizens Starvation begins bc peasants cant afford, they have nothing left—rebellions being (Frenchmen are killing Frenchmen) Hold a general meeting in various parts of the state…representatives from aristocrats, king, and middle class...in order to figure out what to do French middle class is large and wealthy—government tries to tax middle class more and middle class says they agree, but want a say in government Aristocrats say no to middle class and lock them out of the meeting French middle class says they are the voice of France Appears this war will be like American Rev but not at the end (Thomas Payne becomes leader in early stage of French Rev) Starts as a respectable Revolution, and then the violence gets much worse (massacres as French mob runs on rampage) French mob becomes in control and they “put hands on the king of France” (he is jailed in a palace?) French Revolutionaries have decision to make: If they don’t release the king, then there will be a collective invasion from other European countries French military has collapsed nothing but armed mob Army was relatively small, made of professional soliders (European armies on the move) French Revolutionaries call for “Leve omas” (general mobilization of the entire state) o Entire state will be a part of the movement against European opponents (every French male has possibility of participating) Average European army = 40, 50, 60 men French “army”—not well trained but there are thousands of them they overwhelm European armies French revolutionary army begins to attack neighboring states English joins war against france Extremely bloody—revolutionaries in France are always paranoid (on lookout for counter revolutionaries) King is in jail throw all enemies in prison o Prisons of France become full of French citizens who were against the revolution Clearance of the prisons 1792: thousands in prison will be massacred tortured then killed Reign of Terror (1793-94): most bloody period of war Guillotine: way to execute French men At height of reign, guillotine would be at work from dawn to dusk France begins to stabilize under new French Revolutionary government Small group of conspirators 1799—small group of civilians/soldiers are in charge of France Genet Mission 1793 Neutrality: When a new ambassador is appointed, must present his credentials to head of state (at time head of state=Washington) Edmond Genet is appointed to be ambassador of US from France o He is brilliant, but a younger man (seen as a baby) o He thinks he is equal to older men including Washington (mistake) o Comes to NYC to have meeting with Washington and receives letter from Washington saying he had to leave and that they could meet up another time o Washington keeps ignoring Genet o Thomas Jefferson likes the Revolution going into a new stage of liberty o Jefferson moves around with Genet and tells him that Washington is avoiding him bc he doesn’t want to accept his credentials and worried France will ask US to join war and fight against Europe o During American Rev: US signed a treaty with France, forming a military alliance with them (after battle of Saratoga) o All treaties have expiration dates…except for this one o French just wants money from US, Genet tells Jefferson he has a bag of Letters of Marque and Reprisal o In 1793 these are legal, today not legal o If you need to go to war against a country with a bigger army than your own, you could issue these letters across globe. If you were a private citizen, you could join war (privateer) o If you agree to only attack English as a private citizen and provide your own war supplies, you can attack English anywhere and whatever you conquer becomes yours (English empire is across globe) o English fighting war of national survival—washington knows English will come and burn down America if US participates against them.. Genet Mission Neutrality 1793: Washington says we won’t get involved in war, not just towards Europe, but for American people to stay out o Genet writes speeches to advise Americans to get rid of Washington and washingotn orders his arrest o Genet doesn’t want to go back to franch bc the old group of French Revolutionaries that sent him are all dead and a new group of French Revolutionaries want to take Genet’s head too o Genet marries an American woman so he can eventually become US citizen 1794 Whiskey Rebellion: Occurs in western Pennsylvania…at this point almost no real money in circulation On frontiers, whiskey/alcohol used as money Hamilton needs to get economy goingraise taxes, tax raised on alcohol beverages Farmers in Penn. Launch a rebellion Washington hears of rebellion and orders 13,000 men to crush rebellion They go to Pennsylvania and find nothing bc drunks have gone home—whole thing collapses (at same time, the reign of terror is happening—so Washington thinks French Revolution would’ve broken out) Jefferson decides Hamilton and Federalist are conspiring to overthrow the US government (accuse of Treason) Hamilton blames same thing of Jefferson Washington is appalled: can’t get rid of political parties Fallen Timbers: Ohio River valley area Indian tribe crushed and opens area for American settlement Jay’s treaty 1795: Both English and US claim they owe each other money 1794 appoint John Jay to go to London to sign treaty (he is chief justice of supreme court), but this is an economic treaty…why didn’t Washington send Hamilton or Jefferson? Bc Washington cant trust them to do the right thing Both countries agree to forget debts successful treaty Eventually Hamilton and Jefferson resign France is VERY unhappywant revenge on US (lead to war between france and US) Washington has james Madison draw up a farewell address but he is talked into serving another term, so stores away draft for now After second term: Washington revises and edits essayhamilton revise/editswashington revise/edithamiltonJohn Jay editsHamiltonwashington does final edits o In end, Washington does final revisions, proving that everything in document stands for what he believes in (not a speech but printed as document) Washington calls himself a wormtrying to show sense of humility At end says, if we do this right, then our values/government will spread and be applauded. Our republican model of government will spread across globe 1776: Washington sees storm clouds ahead for future…”apprehensions of dangers” Gives warnings: o Unity of Government: make sure you remain united under one governmentthis will bring peace and prosperity. Paladium: whatever gives you your greatest protection. If you lose your palladium, you are doomed (if you lose unity = done) o Only word you need to describe yourself is American o If we remain united without forming little independent countries like Europeans, we will avoid the history of the Europeans (they are always at war) and avoid too big of a military bc its dangerous to your liberty. Don’t want a large military establishment o Party based on geographical discriminations is bad: political party that derives power from one part of the country=dangerous o You (the people) ultimately make the law, so you must obey the law o Factions and political parties represent small fraction, not the will of the nation, but the will of a small organized group (advocate their own interest) o Adolf Hitler: uses political party (Nazis) through democratic process and uses crisis to become dictatorexactly what Washington warned o We can never eliminate spirit of factions from humans o Political parties = single most danger for future o At some point people will grow tired of political party and will turn to tyrantlose liberty in the end o Will lead to foreign influence and corruption (democrats taking money from competitor foreignrepublicans taking money from same government, countries expect something in return) o Religion/morality = firm If we no longer believe in God, testimony in court becomes worthless (system of justice collapses) People like Jefferson and Tom Payne that aren’t religious Washington recognizes that a few can be moral men without being religious mennot majority…must be religious to keep morals o Voltaire: hates organized religiondenies existence of God bc earthquake (wonder how God could do this to them)…doesn’t write this in his books bc if you eliminate religion, you will get a nightmare (Washington and Voltaire agree on this) o Virtue and morality=same thing according to Washington “virtue or morality is necessary to spring popular government (republic or democracy)” o Says to make schools (tacked onto religion…no separation of church and state)—public schools should be teaching religion o Avoid debt and wars—don’t leave debt for future generations o Be friendly, but no permanent allies, be alone in world o Tere will come a time, if we remain united, we will become a great nation o Why would we want to get involved with affairs of Europe o Closes: someday you folks will forget all of this…”destiny of nations”— a people is born and rise to dominance, but someday future generations will forget all of this and will fall and lose power o US will forget advice and decline o Washington dies 1799—goes out riding in storm and gets ill (dies 30 days later) Election of 1796: John Adams wins (washington’s VP) Only time federalist pary controls presidency from 1797-1801 (one term) Capital moved from NYCDC Adams elected by original style of elections: whatever candidate receives most amount of votes becomes president Second most votes = VPJefferson (on opposite political parties) Must change constitution bc at time of writing constitution, they couldn’t predict political parties would form Adams and jefferson become more and more political enemies, by the end they stop talking to eachother Adams is a one term president, means something went wrong Adams: o Not a soldier, hyper-intellectual which leads to problems…cant talk to the common man (no small talk) o Interested in science and also believes women are equal of men (very rare) o Americans admire him but don’t love him XYZ affiliation/Quasi war: First war as republic French wants revenge, French warship attack American vessels in Caribbean Protest to government of France, but France says they aren’t doing anything to Americans Americans all say that the ship that attacked them had .an American flag Adams sends 3 diplomats to paris to find out what the problem is. Diplomats meet Tallyrand: only major French political figure to survive everything, can talk his way out of anything Americans met by 3 agents of Tallyrand and say that they must pay money if you want to talk to Tallyrand Americans are outraged bc this is immoral…break off diplomatic relations (Adams is angered) Sends out newspaper that publishes what happened, knows Americans will be horrified. Gives nickname X,Y,Z to agents American crowds demand war against French Americans: we want French to leave us alone, John Adams decides not to declare war Undeclared war: sends troops to carribbean to attack French Quasi war: begin to attack French warship, naval engagement, there are a few land battles, but it is restricted to carribbean area Capture Spanish island (marines) bc they were helping the French French suffers extreme losses Napolean sends message to president: “send more diplomats” New diplomats go to paris and see Tallyrand o Tallyrand says “what is your price to end this war” o John adams is a great lawyer and draws up list of demands o One non-negotiable thing: we must get out of treaty in order to end war o Napoleon agrees to get US as friend again 1798: Refugees from Europe in America are revolutionary by nature Federalists party wants to raise bar on how to become a citizen—pass Alien Acts Alien and Sedition acts: Alien: Fourteen years of residency, president can deport aliens, dangerous radicals can be departed Sedition: Crime to talk bad about government, you were charged a crime and thrown in jail (directed at Jeffersonians) Average americans realize this goes against freedom of speech (including the federalist eventually—they realize law will be a threat to them one day) People associate John Adams with Alien and Sedition act, cost him his second election Kentucky Resolution: Jefferson Virginia Resolution: Madison . Basically, both say that alien and sedation act are unconstitutional and violate our rights Only in Kentucky resolution: concept of nullification—any state that finds a federal law to be unconstitutional, that state can nullify the federal law (think like states overturning current marijuana laws) Jefferson believed this was a way to control the federal government Election of 1800: Jefferson (1801-1809): Jefferson = first president to spend entire time in office at DC While constitution is written, Jefferson in France (Italy cultivated new superstrain of rice…US must have it. But, capital crime to smuggle their rice) …jefferson smuggles rice Jefferson doesn’t ride in carriage to farewell speech—wants to be accessible to the people At time when you “came downstairs dressed”, Jefferson would not come down in full dress. He would even be out of full dress when meeting diplomats —some became outraged (this event was reported in the gaettes: magazine where people could read gossip) americans love this about jefferson Jefferson says white house is the people’s house, so you can come ask him a question at any time Economy dependent: we produce raw materials and buy from Europe— Jefferson knows this will be a problem o Wants to cut the federal budget o Small government, almost no where to cut money most $$ dedicated to military o Jefferson targets army but cant cut army bc only 3,000 soldiers—so turns to navy o Jefferson (along with americans) believe two things about navy: 1. Navy is really expensive, want to cut them 2. If you build large warships, you will find a reason to use them (wants to avoid unnecessary wars) Wants navy large enough to protect coastline but not across the vast sea 1880s: people change and say “we need enourmous warships” Barbary wars: 1801-1805 Barbary pirates: group of city-states (independent city kingdom ruled by Islamic leaders—slave trade and piracy is where they get money?) Relatively small, insignificant army…european states have been paying them off…attack American ships You must pay pirates if you want to get your captured sailor back Would negotiate treaty for one year (then pay money) to get pirates to leave you alone…but price increases every time treaty wins out Jefferson “we will sign other treaty, but we wont pay you”—insulted barary leaders and leaders start war Jefferson hates idea of pirates—jefferson understood that leader would request war Jefferson uses presidential authority to send navy to coast of Africa—second undeclared war US will win barbary wars—bloodier and more costly than it should have been Irony in what Jefferson believes US wars wind down in 1805 Barbary pirates attack until 1816 bc English had to wait until French wars were over (English shut down barbary in 1816) Napoleon Bart: became emperor of France 1799-1815 Ruthless, cold, good military leader Cant be defeated on land Understands arch enemy is defeated—England, their arch enemies England = island nation, wants to invade England (England navy is largest… must defeat navy or French cant get through) Napoleon wars 1799-1815: Off coast of spain: Spanish-french fleet was annihilated at Trafalgar 1805 o English navy wont have to fight for 100 years—top country in the world o For napoleon: cant invade England—decides to turn French army against Russia (defeated them, but didn’t finish job) o French invade Russia, over 650,000 men in French army o French army gains control of Moscow (capital)—wait for them to surrender, but they don’t. Napoleon waits in Moscow and eventually becomes winter time o Napoleon realizes Russia wont surrender and they have no winter supplies so they evacuate Moscow o Someone lights fires and Moscow burns down…moscow becomes doubly angered o French army surrounded by Russian army/peasantsno prisoners, men freeze to dealthfrench finally cross river to safety (40,000 men make it out…lost army of 600,000 French soldiers) o Napoleon makes big mistake o Countries of Europe see opportunity to fight French o 1813-1814: napoleon realizes game Is up, taken prisoner by English, Napoleonic wars over o Gets sent to island of Elbais smuggled off island south france, then he walks towards Paris (people love him) o Start w with a group of 20 men…turns into thousands of armed peasants French army appears ready to massacre napoleon/men o Nap opens chest and says “at least my blood will be on French soil” o Armies join napoleonking leavesnapoleon is crowned emperor again: o “the 100 days”—crucial battle=battle of moscow Battle of Moscow (1815): English/germans vs. French (not settled until 7 pm when final French army surrenders…close battle) Allow him to live, but send him to St. Helena island where he is guarded by soldiers Dies after a few years (think he got poisoned) Louisiana Purchase 1803: West of Mississippi=France territory, then English take over Spain governing “Louisana purchase” area at this time Napolean (France) wants this area backSpain agrees to give it back Sign secret treaty where land is transferred back to France Americans notice Spanish flags are gone France now run by Napoleon Jefferson hated Napoleon (France now controls Mississippi, and NO port city, so Jeffersons wants this land) Jefferson considers going to war against France with English allies Maybe we can buy territory…send diplomats over Jefferson gets with congress to buy NO and surrounding area only…not all of territory American diplomats get to paris and see tallyrand—ask if they want to buy whole territory for 15 million James Monroe is one of the diplomats—agree to French terms and purchase all of territory although congress gave them only enough money for small portion of territory Jefferson calls territory “Empire for liberty” Members of federalist party—“Jefferson, you didn’t have authority to do this bc congress said you could only spend x amount of money” (but most americans are happy) Send series of expeditions to explore new land Lewis and Clarke 1804-06: Northern part of NO Gone for two years with no communication Follow Missouri River (hoped it would be a waterway to get to Pacific Ocean, but Rocky Mts in way) Clarke: military man Lewis: secretary of Jefferson (someone who you can trust) Supposed to make contact with Indians they run into (usually friendly encounters) Only one that goes wrong is with the black feet, who are an aggressive tribe Brought back some animals/plant life back to civilization Lewis and Clarke follow Missouri, cross Rockies, but don’t know where western boundry is bc its not marked….however they did know the LA purchase stopped well short of the Pacific Go past unmarked boundry and go all the way to Pacific Oceans (plant American flag in soil = indication of ownership) After getting to Pacificfollow Mississippi back to civilization when they finally see a cow Lewis dies of gunshot wounds (suicide?) Zebulon Pike: 1806-07 No one knows who sent him, possibly General Wilkonson (Jefferson said he did not send) Goes across great Plains Coming across Spanish territory (gets out of LA purchase area) and goes all the way south of TX…way off course Thrown into Spanish jail and receives letter from President—“tells Spanish, you are not a spy”—makes it sound like he is a spy Secret Spanish military town—he gets arrested again and is sent here (people think he did this on purpose bc maybe a spy?) He is released and goes to NO…sends president two grizzly bears Burr Conspiray: 1805-06 Doesn’t leave a paper trail, so cant be certain on what he was up to (similar to Hamilton bc very brilliant) Patriot, combat soldier Crosses Delaware with Washington Becomes lawyer in NY He and Hamilton don’t like eachother He is very ambitious, intelligent, and you cant trust his motives…would announce “I will be president” First VP under Jefferson after first term he starts looking at other offices Hamilton writes letters sayng that we cant have him as president and so Burr challenges him to a dual in 1804must show up to dual or seen as a coward (dual in NJ) If you fire gun on ground = a way to still show honor but not kill Burr came to kill, but Hamilton’s gun is discharged Burr kills Hamilton Conspiracy: o Wanted to take a chunk of Spanish land and US territory and set up a new country o Enlists help, including Spanish and military leaders (stockpiles weapons) o Senior military officer (general Wilkonson) gets cold feet o Burr is arrested in Alabama by Gaines—arrest Burr and takes to DC for trial o Chief justice of US in charge of trial—burr is acquitted (allowed to go free) o Jefferson is appalled bc know Burr is guilty but chief justice says there wasn’t enough evidence (Burr goes into exile in Europe) Road to war of 1812: first declared war Bloodiest war for civilians (bloody on frontier, large number of women/children being killed) Begins in Europe English know that English navy stands b/t them and defeat 1,000-1,200 men on ships Disease is rapid, no bathing for 5 months, food spoiled, bad discipline Began to impress sailors: stop at any commercial vessels and kidnap healthy looking sailors o Cant say no bcc English military will destroy you o American merchant marine most affected o 1809: 5,000 americans forced to serve in english navy Also wage economic warfare: o Tries to cut England off of economic trade o Anyone coming to Europe with cargo must be sent to French/English port o French: must come to our port or we capture you o English: must come to our port or we capture you o Americans are attacked either way o 1809: 900 commercial vessels captured by French/English USS Chesapeake vs. HMS Leopard (English warship) 1807: o Naval warship o Not commercial vessel but part of military inventory o Wherever vessel is , no difffernt than being on soil of that country itselfif attacked = reason for war (same thing as attacked TX) o English claim deserters from english navy on a US ship o Chessapeake not ready to fight, so captain tries to buy time o English captian opens fire on American ship o English sailors aboard ship and take away three deserters o American people in fury—riots in Baltimore and boston demanding war (Jefferson is appalled) o Jefferson knows we’re not ready for war against most powerful nation, so tries economic warfare first Embargo Act 1807: o Cuts off American trade with Europe until they leave us alone o Yes we’re dependent, but Europe is dependent on us too for materials to wage war with o Embargo act has negative effect on France and English, but they’re fighting a national war of survival o On Atlantic seaboard (east)—depression, begin to turn against act…act doesn’t stop the problems 1808, presidential elections, Jefferson steps aside: o James Madison takes over (Jeffersonian) o Jefferson. Party controls for 4 terms in a row o All attempts of econ warfare fails Tecumseh—Tippecone 1811: Harrison (governor) Greatest indian threat Tecumseh (greatest enemy) o Knew about Pontiac (who made rising against English/Americans but rebellion fails) o Comes from same area as Pontiac and wants to try a frontier wide rising of all tribes in one wave of attack o Hometown=Tippecone o Harrison hates Tecumseh…accused Tecum of a conspiracy o Have shouting match, both draw out weapons o 1810: Tecum has successfully rallied northern tribes, but needs southern tribes o Creek Indians o 1810: goes to south to meet Indians near Montgomery, AL to present his ideas at the great meeting (several americans in crowd) o Waits for US rep to leave meeting finally comes out and gives great speech (americans our our enemies and will steal unless we fight together abandon American ways and join with northern Indians) o Several American frontiersman still in crowd taking notes which end up in hands of James Madison o Not all Indians are on Tecum’s side o 1811: Tecum goes home to find his hometown destroyed Harrison attacks Tippecanoe and destroys town/Indians o Dreams shattered and Tecum disappears for now 1810 election: Warhawks—War congress Midterm election, congress is up for election Warhawks: new group of congressmen from south and west “if you elect us, I will vote for war with English” Large percentage of Americans are ready for war First declared war 1811: Madison prepares for war (stockpile food and weapons) at least 6 months before, actively preparing for war 1812: Madison asks for declaration of war against England One of 5 reasons: Tecum says “when we have rising, England will give us money and weapons” Congress declars war: federalists vote against, Jeffersonians vote yes for war war of 1812 War of 1812: Good time bc Nap (French) is invading Russia, English side is losing must defend themselves but wont have many resources to do so We attack immediately: three armies who outnumber English soldiers Want to get English out of Canada…invade Canada English defeat all American armies—english military has indian allies (including Tecum—now wearing eng military officer uniform) Rember the Raisin 1812: o Tecum massacre americans o Americans charge in saying “remember the raisin!” o Massacre of soldiers at Raisin River o Atrocity…? 1812, do well on sea: few warships but win more than they lose o Handout letter of market and reprisal…over 600 privateers (do serious damage to English economies) War of 1812-15: Fought on own soil 1813: English blockade—prisoners: In Europe, French invasion of Russia collapsed, things not going well for Napoleon English warships show up in every major American port city English know we manufacture almost nothingtrying to intercept Block from Georgia to NYC, but don’t blockade coastline of New England bc federalist are here and federalist are against the war (jeffersonians in south are for war” Rest of country will think people in NE are supporting England (their enemies) England trying to divide country 23 captured American soldiers that English ssay they will execute as traitors Born subject of the kingIrish move to the US, but were born in Ireland (England controlled), so English army calls irish-americans traitors James Madison: 23 captured English officers English army orders 46 captured Americas and says, “If you harm English, we will harm all 46 captured americans” Madison: “if you harm one American soldier or irish men, I will order army to kill any Englishmen, take no prisoners…will execute English officers” English back downrelease prisoners and Madison also releases prisoners Lake Erie/Ontario: controlled by English American army landed and take control of York (Toronto, Canada, which was an English town) American general (zebulon pike) killed in action Take control of English government buildingsfind scalps in buildingsamerican soldiers then burn York English/americans start burning each other’s towns Lake Erie: naval engagement o Americans win battle and americans take control of Lake…at the same time Creek War about to begin (southern tribe supports Tecumseh) Creek War/Fort Mims: Fort mims= largest fort, Creek Indians hate this fort Creek Indians want to conquer fort mims and attack settlers inside fort Creek Indians overrun fort, and American military patrol are sent to fort Body parts are all around Americans demand vengeancesoldiers converge on Creek’s land All battles: americans winall creek Indians exterminated Tennessee army led by Andrew Jackson (he was in hospital bc got shot, but still leads men to combat) English army (large number of indian allies) and looting American country side, decide to slowly move back to Canada William henry Harrison: trying to shutdown English army bc Tecumseh is with English army and americans hate Tecumseh American army follow English army to Canada English army goes to the Thames River Battle of Thames River: Members of congress go to war Congressmen Johnson goes towards Tecumsehgets wounded, but kills Tecumseh English army is defeated and death of Tecumseh Skinn Tecumseh to show American people he was defeated War different than any other 1814: last full year of war Battle of Horseshoe Bend: Last of Creek battles…indians build wall to defend creek village Andrerw jacson and his men get across wall and defeat the Indians (creek war is over) We gain their land of Alabama 1814: war in Europe temporarily overEnglish can focus on Americans now (they are the greatest military power) Empire strikes back: English believe Americans have betrayed them English government bring fire/sword to USsend enormous armies out of Canada and US army is greatly outnumbered (they burn their cities) Hartford Convention: Federalists NE are unhappy—decide to meet with only federalist in Hartford Connecticut…draw up 7 amendments that they want immediately adopted (would’ve made central government very weak) Want to surrender to England If demands are not entirely met then NE said they will succeed from union. This is seen as treason/traitors English army out of Canada is now defeated Last English army captures Washington DC and burn all of its public buildings English army moves toward Baltimore now…baltimore builds huge fortifications and give all citizens guns Two American soldiers left on battlefield, see English officer, so they shoot officer and kills their commanding general English navy attacks small fortenglish navy fails to take fortress Flag still standing (Francis scott key writes national anthem) 1814: English army given new general and sent to gulf of Mexico (defeated) Sail back to gulf with an unknown destination Jackson is in Spanish Pennsicola and destroys sanish territory bc blames Spain for helping English Jackson takes army to NO (100s of americans join including pirates, blacks, Indians…) 1815 New Orleans: Peace Build American line across swampy area English army must attack from front English think they can easily break through line bc americans have a poor army and bc on flat terrain English army move army up and slowly walk towards americans Over in less than half hour…americans shoot them to pieces (2,000 english soldiers shot down)one of the worst defeats of England Jan 8,1815: News of jackson’s victory Peace treaty arrives from Europe ratified and ends war Hartford convention’s demands arrive (dead letter bc war is over) As a result of war of 1812: Americans will hate the English for many decades General William Harrision represents americans: “my country and your country will hate eachother for a long time” Americans believe god was on their side, and that’s why they were victorious Second bank of US: 1816 Financial depression of war of 1812: blame end of bank for economic problems Made by jeffersonians (converted) but will have 20 year charter Madison was very popular2 terms James Monroe: serves two terms 1817-1825 ( 6 presidential terms where jeffersonians control whte house Combat soldier during Revolutionary war— he will be the last of founding fathers Term in office is covered by era of good feelings Era of good feeliings: Federalist party disenigrates Only one political party for long time…very little political disagreement Adams-Oniz treaty: FL added to union (Spanish territory) Indians from FL raid Georgia…jackson takes army and invades Spanish FL (finds two English men who says they are businessmen, but Jackson kills bc doesn’t believe) then brings army back to American soil English government demands an apology but Monroe ignores Spain also protests…americans must answer bc Spain/americans on good terms…monroes men say we shouldn’t invade spain…but Monroe and Quincy Adams (sec of state) draw up a diplomatic document to Spain: we cant punish jackson bc Americans love him…we cant apologize bc indians attacked US territory and you’re supposed to control the Indians In our eyes, they say, you must give us FL to settle problem (Spain has no military power so they give up FL) this is the result of treaty American system: Henry Clay Comes to congress with war hawks: Henry is powerful senator American system: we need to be self-sufficient…need manufacturing abse in US/materials to wage war (industrial base) Use tariff (tax on imported goods)—raise taxes on goods from Europe will be very high If you make European products so high will encourage Americans to make own goods (risk is justifiable and americans will build own factories) 1840s: industrial revolution…works in the end Monroe Doctrine: 1823 Europeans after downfall of Napoleon form alliance (holy alliance) don’t want to deal with Revolutions…all countries in alliance will send their armies to crush any revolutions In 1800s Revolution breaking out in latin America and holy alliance wants to send army to America to crush Mexican revolution Monroe doctrine: o 1. We like what we see, we encourage latin American republic growth and will protect them o 2. US promises to stay out of European wars as long as you agree to this o 3. No more expanding in our American hemisphere (we will leave you alone in yours) Monroe delievers this as a speech and others say you cant enforce this, but in the end Europeans will obey England enforces doctrine bc see economic opportunity
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