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Roman History in World History to 1600

by: Karina Ann Yeager

Roman History in World History to 1600

Marketplace > Troy University > History > > Roman History in World History to 1600
Karina Ann Yeager
Troy University
GPA 3.4

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Roman History Class Notes
World History to 1600
Class Notes
Roman, Civilization, worldhistory, history, world
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Karina Ann Yeager on Friday August 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Troy University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see World History to 1600 in History at Troy University.


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Date Created: 08/12/16
Roman History: ­The republic (sixth century BC to 27 BC) ­The precipitate or Early Empire (27 BC­ 180 CE) ­The time of upheavals (180 CE to 284 CE) ­Period of the Later Empire (284­610 CE)  What is a republic? ­in simple terms, a Republic is  state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens  who are entitled to vote and in which power is exercised by representatives chosen directly or  indirectly by the citizens.  ­Roman Civilization is generally recognized as the originator and exemplar of  ­The early history of the roman republic was one of perpetual warfare for more than two  centuries after its establishment ­however, they gradually went from being almost always on the defensive to  ­ ­Two very familiar legends of roman heroism emerged out of this era ­Horatio: was said to have help off an entire army with two friends at the front of a bridge ­Cincinnatus: was a retired soldier who left his home and farm at a moment’s notice for the  battlefield  ­ Cincinnatus is synonymous with the ideal of the farmer­citizen­soldier  Terms: ­consuls ­senate ­plebeians ­patricians ­Tribunes  Political life ­During the early period, Rome underwent some important political changes ­Two elected officials called Consuls were substituted for the king ­The aristocratic senate was given control of public funds (treasury) ­However, the political dominance of the aristocracy (known in Rome of the period as the  Patricians) began to be challenged by the Plebeians (small farms and wealthy families of foreign  origin)  ­Populist Society and Culture ­In contrast to Greece, early Roman civilization did not have high levels of literacy ­Soldiering and farmers continued to be the main occupations ­In fact, the Romans had no standard monetary system until 269 BC  Religion ­Roman religion was vastly similar to that of the Greeks. In centered on the performance of  rituals in order to gain benefit from the Gods. ­The romans had essentially the same Gods as the Greeks, but with different names.  ­Secularism  ­Militarily insecure based on geography  Origins of the War if Carthage ­By 265 BC, the Romans had conquered almost the entire Italians mainland. To further  strengthen their security, they ventured overseas to confront Carthage ­Carthage was a great maritime empire that stretched along the northern coast of Africa from  modern Tunisia to the Straits of Gibraltar  ­The Roman Empire circa 100 BC ­The victory over Carthage brought land, wealth and prestige to the Roman Empire. By the  second century BC, Rome controlled virtually the entire  The rise and fall of Spartacus ­The most threatening slave revolt was from 73 to 71 BC. It was led by Spartacus, who while  being trained to be a Gladiator, escaped with a band of fugitives to Mount Vesuvius near Naples. ­They attracted a host of others along the way and, for two years, held off the Roman army.  ­Pompey and Caesar  The Principiate or Early Empire ­Shortly before his death in 44BC, Julius Caesar had adopted as his sole heir his grandnephew  Octavian ­Octavian, who was away when Caesar was murdered, returned to Rome to lay claim to power.  He quickly joined forces with Mark Antony to defeat the powerful aristocrats who were  responsible for Caesars murder.  ­Pax Romana­ The Roman Empire 44BC  The crisis of the Third century (180­284 CE) ­With the death of Marcus Aurelius in 180BC, the Time of the Upheavals began ­Aurelius was one of the most thoughtful and philosophic ruler to ever reign (famous follower of  stoicism) ­However, it is hard to forget that he was not wise enough to recognize that his son Commodus  was vicious and incompetent  Late Antiquity ­The period between the reign of Diocletian (284­303) and the Roman Empire’s loss of control  over the Mediterranean (around 610) is often referred to as Late Antiquity  Diocletian’s Reform 1. Diocletian shifted the weight of the empire towards the east 2. From this base of power, Diocletian adopted the titles and ceremonies of an Oriental  leader 3. Furthermore, in contrast to the Roman Republic, Diocletian relied increasingly on an  imperial bureaucracy  Constantine Constantinople Constantine’s Conversion  Early Spread of Christianity  The Emergence of Jesus ­First four books of New Testament  The outline of Jesus Teachings  1. The Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of Humanity  2. The Golden Rule 3. Forgiveness and love for one’s enemies 4. Repayment of Evil with Good 5. Shunning of Hypocrisy 6. Opposition to religious ceremonialism  7. The imminent approach of the Kingdom of God 8. The resurrection of the dead and the establishment of the Kingdom of Heaven The Crucifixion of Jesus   ­“Disturbing the peace of civilization”  th  ­Piero Della Francesca’s “The Resurrection” (15  Century) Paul of Tarsus  ­apostille to the non­Jewish people  ­denied that Jesus came to only save Jewish people: he was a savior of mankind ­Paul is known as the “apostle to the gentiles” (Non­Jews)  Why did Christianity Prevail 1. Christianity was new and dynamic in the realm of religious belief 2. Christianity’s exclusiveness was unique at the time 3. Christianity, alone among its rivals, had an all­embracing theory to explain evil on earth  Early roman Christianity  ­most importantly Christianity was a religion of the humble ­Carpenters, fishermen, and tentmakers flocked to the faith ­it was a religion of the dispossessed and produced a sense of mission and purpose for a people  who were otherwise without hope  ­St. Athanasius and Early Christian Theology  ­Council of Nicea (325)  Early Christian Thought ­St. Jerome translated the Bible from Hebrew and Greek into Latin. His version known as the  Vulgate would become the standard Bible used throughout the middle Ages  ­St. Ambrose promoted the idea that the Bible was to be understood allegorically rather than  literally ­He also believed that education/classical learning was something that Christians could attain  ­St. Augustine was Ambrose’s disciple ­he remains the greatest of all the Latin fathers of Christianity  ­his influence on medieval thought is incalculable  ­Over 1500 years later, his ideas remain widely respected by a number of Catholics/ Christians  The fall of Rome  The Visigoth Sack of Rome  Edward Gibbon (1737­1794) ­In the late 1700s, British historian Edward gibbon wrote six­volumes on the history of the  Decline and fall of the Roman Empire ­Gibbon attributed Rome’s decline principally to the rise of Christianity  ­concisely stated, gibbon argued that roman citizens began to care more about heaven than earth  and ceased tending to Rome’s social and political institutions  The fall of Rome: Cultural Factors ­The aphorism “idle time is work of the devil” applied to the people of Rome  ­For entertainment, people would go to the colosseum and 


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