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Organic Chemistry 1
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anastasia Notetaker on Friday August 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 251 at Community College of Allegheny County taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Community College of Allegheny County.


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Date Created: 08/12/16
A Behavioral Comparative Analysis of Varecia variegata and Propithecus coquereli in Response to Varying Guest Stimulus Anastasia E. Georgiades Environmental Education and Animal Behavior Internship The Philadelphia Zoo 3400 W. Girard Avenue Philadelphia, PA 19104 12 August 2016 1. Introduction Both separate species, the Black and White Ruffed Lemur (Varecia variegata) and Coquerel’s Sifaka (Propithecus coquereli) are native to Madagascar, an island off the southeast coast of Africa. Being lemurs, both species are not only largely arboreal, but are also frugivorous, eating mainly fruits, leaves, seeds, and nectars during the warmer months, and dry bark and dead wood in the cooler months (Duke Lemur Center, 2016.) Varecia variegata can measure four feet long, and weigh in anywhere between 7-10 pounds. While Propithecus coquereli is relatively shorter, only measuring about three feet in length, the sifaka outweighs Varecia variegata, weighing 7-13 pounds on average. Living up to 20 years in captivity (average 11 in the wild,) lemurs, in general, exhibit very social behavior, living in troops of up to 15 members. While both species are currently classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as Endangered, classifications of both species have not been made in nearly five years; therefore, a recent conservation status cannot be confirmed at this time (IUCN, 2016.) The objective of this research was to uncover data that supported a hypothesis stating that both Varecia variegata and Propithecus coquereli were more responsive to guest stimuli between the hours of 9am and 1pm, as opposed to the afternoon hours of 1pm-5pm. The individuals observed were as follows: Varecia variegata: Huey, male, DOB: 04/04/2006 Kiaka, female, DOB: 05/01/2007 Madison, female, DOB: 02/21/2016 Theodore, male, DOB: 02/21/2016 Quincy, male, DOB: 02/21/2016 Lincoln, male, DOB: 02/21/2016 (“Black and White Ruffed”, 2016.) Propithecus coquereli: Eudoxia, female, DOB: 02/11/2000 Loka, male, DOB: 02/02/2008 Carlo, male, DOB: 01/07/2012 Julia, female, DOB: 01/28/2013 (“Coquere;s Sifaka”, 2016.) 2. Methods Data was obtained by observing each species a total of eight times over a course of three months. Each species was observed four times between the hours of 9am-1pm, and four times between the hours of 1pm-5pm. Duration of observations lasted between 45 and 75 minutes, depending on the day. Reactions to guest stimulus were observed, and recorded by hand in a notebook, which was eventually transferred to an electronic ethogram. Observations of potential guest stimulus included the following: crowd density at exhibit, age of guests, presence of large objects such as wheelchairs and strollers, and whether the stimulus was direct or indirect. Direct stimulus was constituted as tapping, banging, or hitting the glass, and screaming or loudly talking to the animals. Indirect stimulus was constituted as the presence of large items such as wheelchairs or strollers, and using cameras and cellular phones to obtain photographs or videos of the animals in their respective exhibits. Observations were made whenever stimuli were present. 3. Results and Discussion 3.1 Varecia variegata Overall, Varecia variegata responded most quickly and most frequently to stimuli present between the hours of 9am-1pm, supporting the hypothesis. In the presence of direct stimulus, Varecia variegata exhibited a greater tendency to retreat to the top of their exhibit, often choosing a yellow, metal beam to rest on. In addition to their reaction to direct stimulus, Varecia variegata also exhibited a tendency to retreat to higher ground in the presence of stimuli such as wheelchairs, large strollers, and dense crowds surrounding their exhibit. Occasionally, territorial calls from Huey could be heard throughout the exhibit, potentially a sign that the troop felt overwhelmed by a bombardment of stimuli. While Varecia variegata’s response to direct stimulus resulted in the troop’s retreat to higher grounds, the species response to indirect stimulus was quite opposite. In the presence of indirect stimulus, including cameras and cell phones, Varecia variegata often ignored the stimulus and opted to interact with one another, instead. These lemur-lemur interactions could be classified as playful and innocent, and were especially prevalent during the hours of 9am-10:30am, a range of time when the troop would wait to receive food from their keepers. As are most animals at the Philadelphia Zoo, Varecia variegata are not only food-motivated, but also trained to receive a food reward for complying with hand signals from their keepers. This led me to believe that the ignorance to indirect stimulus was directly related to the anticipation of a food reward during their normal morning feeding time: the greater the desire for food, the more ignorant to guest stimulus the lemurs would be. 3.2 Propithecus coquereli While Varecia variegata’s response to guest stimulus confidently supports the hypothesis, Propithecus coquereli’s response to guest stimulus was nearly opposite. Propithecus coquereli exhibited most interactive behaviors between the hours of 9am-1pm, supporting the hypothesis, however, the two species’ reactions to indirect and direct stimulus varied greatly. While Varecia variegata exhibited behavior in the form of a retreat in the presence of direct stimulus, Propithecus coquereli seemed increasingly interested in the growing population outside their exhibit. In addition to the change in response to direct stimulus, responses to indirect stimulus showed only one consistency between the two species: the presence of strollers and wheelchairs. While Propithecus coquereli found indirect stimuli such as cellphones and cameras to be intriguing, often coming up to the glass in curiosity, the troop often retreated much like Varecia variegata in response to large strollers or wheelchairs. Response to stimuli between the hours of 1pm-5pm was greatly decreased in both data sets, showing a significant decrease in the guest density outside the exhibit. Responses were limited to the occasional approach of a guest, and browsing of the outdoor exhibit for food. A potential cause for the decrease in guest population to the exhibit could be inclusive, but not limiting the following: species presence in the Zoo360 trails, increasing temperatures during hot summer months, lack of knowledge as to where the exhibit is located (mainly for Propithecus coquereli,) and most common time of day for guests to find food. Because the data showed increased stimulus during the hours of 9am-1pm,it can be said with confidence that the data supports the given hypothesis. Direct Stimulus apping Yelling Hitting Combination Indirect Stimulus Cellphone Camera Stroller Wheelchair 4. 4. Conservation Seeing as how both species inhabit an area utilized for deforestation, it is pertinent that the conservation of this habitat is practiced on the home front. In addition to recycling, use of products containing sustainably farmed palm oil is strongly recommended. By utilizing products containing sustainable palm oil, further habitat destruction in Madagascar is eliminated, preserving the overall well being of both Varecia variegata and Propithecus coquereli. Works Cited "Black & White Ruffed Lemur." - Philadelphia Zoo. N.p., 2016. Web. 12 Aug. 2016. "Coquerel's Sifaka." - Philadelphia Zoo. N.p., 2016. Web. 12 Aug. 2016. "Coquerel’s Sifaka." Duke Lemur Center RSS. N.p., 2016. Web. 12 Aug. 2016. "IUCN." IUCN. N.p., 2016. Web. 12 Aug. 2016.


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