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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anahit Ghaltaghchyan on Friday August 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Staff in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Psych 3-Biopsychology in Psychlogy at University of California Santa Barbara.
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Date Created: 08/12/16
08/13/2016 ▯ Muscles: types of activations ▯ Acetylcholine release motor neurons at the neuromuscular junction causes contraction ▯ A muscle can only generate force through contraction ▯ Each muscle can pull in one direction ▯ Fast vs slow muscle fiber ▯ Mast muscle fibers fatigue quickly ▯ Slow muscles fibers are capable of sustained contraction due to vascularization (more blood vessels around) ▯ Muscles are a mix of slow and fast fibers ▯ To be able to move a joint in multiple directions need 2 types of muscles ▯ Flexors bend or flex a joint ▯ Extensors straighten or extend ▯ Synergistic muscles. Any two muscles whos contraction produces the same movement ▯ Antagonistic muscles- any two muscles that act in opposition ▯ Ex biceps and triceps ▯ ▯ Receptor Orga and muscles ▯ Golgi tendon organs ▯ Embedded in tendons ▯ Tendons connect muscles to bone ▯ Detect muscle tension ▯ Can stop muscle contraction if dangerous by inhibiting contraction signals from the spinal cord ▯ Stop muscle contractions before you tear your body off the bone ▯ Sense tension and stop from picking something up that is too heavy by sending the information to the spinal cord and activate a interneuron and inhibit the neuron that makes the muscle move to stop ▯ Sends info to antagonistic muscles to counteract ▯ Muscle spindles ▯ Embedded in muscle tissues ▯ Detect changes in muscle length ▯ Wrapped around intrafusal muscle ▯ Intrafusal muscle is innervated by intrafusal motor neurons ▯ Intrafusal muscle gets stretched during muscle relaxation, shortening during muscle contraction ▯ Sends signals to CNS ▯ Reflexes ▯ Stretch reflex ▯ Monosynaptic ▯ Serves to maintain limb stability ▯ Withdrawal reflex ▯ Not monosynaptic ▯ Required interneurons ▯ Doesn’t go up to the brain ▯ ▯ Bonus features ▯ Reciprocal innervation antagonistic muscles work in parallel ▯ Recurrent collateral inhibition ▯ Gives muscles a break ▯ Feedback loops through Renshaw cells that gives muscle fibers a rest after every contraction ▯ Motor neurons inhibit themselves ▯ ▯ Central sensorimotor programs ▯ The higher levels of the sensorimotor system have patterns of activity programmed in them and complex movements are produced by activating these programs ▯ Cerebellum and basal ganglia then serve to coordinate the various programs ▯ Sensorimotor programs may be primarily stored in the SMC ▯ Control of central sensorimotor programs in not necessarily conscious ▯ Despite an incorrect conscious perception of a stimulus, the motor system can respond correctly to it ▯ Central sensorimotor programs are not necessarily consciously activated ▯ Circle illusion picture ▯ ▯ We are likely born with many programs (instinctive/ reflexive) ▯ Practice can also generate and modify programs ▯ Responsive chunking ▯ Practice combines the central programs controlling individual Reponses ▯ When writing BEN instead of sequentially activating programs for writing B E and N over time we can just initiate the programs for writing BEN ▯ Shifting control the lower levels ▯ Frees up higher levels to do more complex tasks ▯ Permits greater speed ▯ Chunking ▯ Functional brain imaging of sensorimotor learning ▯ Functional brain imaging studies in humans have generally supported the findings from more invasive studies of non human primates ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ After Midterm ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯
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