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week 8

by: Anahit Ghaltaghchyan
Anahit Ghaltaghchyan

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intro to global studies 1
Dr. Philip McCarty
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anahit Ghaltaghchyan on Friday August 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to global at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Dr. Philip McCarty in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see intro to global studies 1 in Global Studies at University of California Santa Barbara.


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Date Created: 08/12/16
08/13/2016 ▯ Nuremberg Trials ▯ Justice seen to be observed, not good enough to just be observed. US legal team ▯ Innocence until proven guilty comes out of this trial ▯ “gave the Nazis what they denied their opponents, the protection of the law” ▯ Original arguments were for summary execution of Nazi war crimes without trial ▯ Standing before the law was extended to Nazis even though everyone knew they were guilty ▯ Nuremberg as the ceremonial birthplace of the nazi party ▯ Trial of Hermann Goring intentionally reinstated the rule of law in the international domain ▯ Reinforce idea of civilization ▯ Revolutionized Ango American law ▯ Solidified support of Geneva conventions ▯ Multi nation, multilateral joint judgement ▯ Defined crimes against humanity ▯ Geneva convention IV ▯ Explicitly outlaws total war ▯ Nazi war crimes, ▯ Genocide ▯ Crimes against humanity ▯ Outlaws targeting of civilians ▯ Extensively denies the basic, wartime rights of prisoners ▯ Establishes protections of the wounded ▯ Excludes torture, gives right to trial ▯ Does not address conduct of warfare ▯ Preamble of UN charter ▯ To save succeeding generations rom the scourge of war ▯ To reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, the dignity and worth of the human person, the equal rights of men and women and of nations large or small ▯ To establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international ▯ ▯ Principles ▯ War and use of force between states prohibited ▯ Monopoly on use of force vested in Security council ▯ Security council employs force to maintain collective____________ ▯ ▯ Fire permanent members; China, France, Russia, UK and US ▯ Favors western nations and majority of states now believe charter is in drastic need of revision ▯ ▯ Universal declaration of human rights 1948 ▯ ▯ Recognizes rights of individuals without distinction ▯ Gave women full rights as men ▯ ▯ Firewall against barbarianism ▯ ▯ US refused to sign up for forms of discrimination against women ▯ ▯ Human rights revolution ▯ In many respects HR is Eurocentric ▯ Eurocentric because was direct respone o the evil of which Europe itself was guilty ▯ Eurocentric since enshrined western concepts of human, individual and enlightment values ▯ Despite this, concept helped fuel both anti colonial recolitions abroad and civil rights movement in the US ▯ Created a human rights culture that is still with us ▯ ▯ Impact of Universal HR ▯ Some counteies incorporated rights into consitition ▯ UN established concept of multilateral global cooperation ▯ European Union – 28 countries. Started originally with 6 ▯ ▯ Multilateral cooperation? ▯ ▯ Yalta-1945- New Europe ▯ Awkward relationships between US and soviet union. Bilateral divide ▯ ▯ Aftermath of WWII ▯ Problem of post nazi Germany ▯ US used atomic bomb ▯ Imbalance of power ▯ _______ ▯ ▯ Capitalism vs communism ▯ ▯ 1947-1991 ▯ ▯ Cold war and human rights ▯ Cold war logic of bilateralism re divided the world into two camps of competing superpowers ▯ All other nations became client states ▯ Us vs them mentality trumped moral considerations ▯ Multilateral to bilateral ▯ From 1950 to 1990 the cold war dominated international relations ▯ It was the new world order ▯ At the end of the cold war we saw shift to unilateralism ▯ International criminal court 2002- at the Hague. US has not signed on it ▯ ▯ International rights? ▯ Is there a IHR regime? who gets to define natural human rights ▯ Can BGOs guarantee rights ▯ Where does the nation state fit in ▯ Are human rights universal or national ▯ Are all nations and people of the world equal? ▯ Think of current moment ▯ Greece and future of UN ▯ Ukraine and rising Russian imperialism- new cold war? ▯ Syria and 4 years of war- 200,000 estimated dead ▯ ▯ Section: ▯ Franz Fanon ▯ Colonization- replacing of a certain species of men by another species of men. Species-race ▯ Not allowed contact with colonizers- dehumanizing ▯ Forever western because of colonialism ▯ ▯ ▯ Lecture 12 - Feminism and global women’s movement ▯ ▯ Declaration of rights of man did not include rights for women ▯ 1791=declaration of the rights of women. Olympe de Gouges ▯ argues for rights of women and slaves ▯ women have the right to mount the scaffold, they must also have the right to mount the speakers rostrum. ▯ Women in 1900 around th world ▯ Nearly all women lived under patriarchal rule reinforced by religious sanctions ▯ Women lacked property and political rights ▯ Women suffered domestic violence ▯ Subjected to arranged marriage or were married early, often to men with several wives ▯ Inadequate sanitation, medical care, poverty keep child mortality high ▯ Changes for some women between 1900-1960 ▯ High improvements in some women’s lives ▯ Life expectancy increased ▯ Pregnancy and delivery much safer ▯ Work and career opportunities ▯ Much more control over their own reproduction ▯ Voting rights for some women ▯ Industrialization brought liberation and new problems for many women ▯ Modern industrial society created new kinds of problems for women ▯ New forms of exploitation (i.e. child labor) ▯ Factory working conditions ▯ Low wages, not benefits ▯ Frequent unemployment ▯ Sexual harassment in work place ▯ Increased cases of divorce and abandonment ▯ Urbanization ▯ For small but growing number of women, standard living improved ▯ Women gained greater independence from traditional family ▯ New forms of association, schools workplace and so on ▯ Reform intended to control middle class women and promote motherhood paradoxically lead to more autonomy ▯ ▯ African American Feminism ▯ Feminisms movement has its own origin among women not of European descent ▯ African American women were always aware of gender oppression in a racist, economically exploitive society ▯ Though the term “black feminism” not used until 1970s it goes back to the early 1800’s when free black women spoke out for women’s rights in the context of abolition ▯ Sojourner truth, francis E harper, Harriet Tubman ▯ ▯ Sojourner Truth- born into slavery. Escaped. Freed and brought legal action to free her son. Gave “ Ain’t I a woman” speech\ ▯ Ida B. Wells ▯ She asked by the Chesapeake train company to give her seat and move to the colored car. Wells sued company and won her case in local recruit courts. Supreme court overturned her case ▯ NACW ▯ Frustrations for black feminists ▯ Post civil war- didn’t extend voting rights to black women ▯ Most black women supported vote for men even if it delayed womens sufforage ▯ Between 1880 and 1930, AA subjected to terrorisim with lynching of 3200 men and the treat of many thousands more ▯ Whites rationalized this racist terrorisms as communal protections against the threat posed by black men to sexually purify white women ▯ History of women’s movement ▯ First wave feminism-voting rights ▯ Second wave-equality ▯ Third- AA ▯ Post feminism ▯ First wave ▯ Legal codes and customs had openly discriminated against women through history ▯ First wave feminism was primarily a fight for fundamental legal rights of women ▯ Right to vote ▯ Right to employment outside the home ▯ Right to own property ▯ Susan B Anthony and Elizabeth cady staton ▯ Founded womens loyal national league- large petition drive in the nations history up to that time ▯ Suffrage movement- starts in England. 1920- first year in America given right to vote ▯ ▯ Working class women went into factories, while middle class women stayed at home and became organized as a new social movement fighting for suffrage ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯


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