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by: Raul Rodriguez

Psych CHM 12901

Raul Rodriguez

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About this Document

Chapter 1
Gen chem with bio focus
C A Hrycyna
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raul Rodriguez on Saturday August 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 12901 at Purdue University taught by C A Hrycyna in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Gen chem with bio focus in Chemistry at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 08/13/16
N: 89 R: 149 Bonus: 21 1. Psychology- the study of behavior and thinking Behavior-Normal, Abnormal a. Scientific Method i. Problem ii. Hypothesis iii. Test iv. Conclusion v. Theory b. Guidelines i. Measurable ii. Organized iii. Objective iv. Communicated v. Repeatable c. Problems to Avoid i. Behavior- normal, genuine ii. Bias- unbiased iii. Privacy- retain confidentiality iv. Availability- need a representative sample v. Generalizing Results-exceptions exist d. Aspects of Research i. Variables 1. Independent- being tested 2. Dependent- not controlled by researcher ii. Control Group- left alone iii. Correlations- relationships iv. Cross Sections- random selection v. Subjects- who is studied e. Methods of Research i. Observation- Watching 1. Natural- uncontrolled environment 2. Controlled- altered environment ii. Case Study- study the background to determine a behavior iii. Survey- Questionnaire or Interview iv. Correlational- finding relationships 1. Positive- two factors both move in the same direction 2. Negative- two factors move in opposite direction v. Experimental- do a test f. Types of Psychology i. Structuralism- study of the makeup of the brain ii. Functionalism- What each part of the brain does iii. Behaviorism- behaviors and how people act 1. Determined by rewards and punishments iv. Psychodynamics- Freud 1. Conscious- can control mental processes 2. Subconscious- active when conscious is not used a. Word Association v. Gestalt- whole 1. “The whole is greater than the sum of the parts”- Gestalt vi. Humanistic- Potential 1. Reach your highest potential by using your talents vii. Existentialism- inner peace 1. Drive to be content I. Learning- Lasting change in Behavior Factors i. Practice and Experience ii. Facts and Skills iii. Reflexes II. Conditioning- Training A. Operant Conditioning i. Stimulus- Command ii. Response- Action iii. Reinforcement- Reward/ Punishment  Shaping- long-term process using operant conditioning to reach final desired goal B. Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) i. Unconditioned Stimulus(UCS)->Unconditioned Response(UCR) Reflex ii. Conditioned Stimulus-> Step i learning takes place iii. Conditioned Stimulus-> Conditioned Response C. Concepts of Conditioning i. Generalization- subject cannot differentiate b/w diff stimuli ii. Discrimination- “ ” can tell the difference iii. Extinction- Conditioned Response stops iv. Spontaneous Recovery- Conditioned Response returns v. Counter cond- stop vi. Avoidance cond- stay away III. Cognitive Learning A. Factors i. Active- effort ii. Organized- thoughts iii. Insight- Understanding iv. Past Experience/ Future Expectations- B. Types i. Instructional ii. Observational iii. Participatory I. Thinking- unobservable activity processing and understanding information a. Types i. Creative- original 1. Moderate intelligence 2. Sense of Humor 3. Flexible 4. Spontaneous 5. Like to be challenged 6. Do not like rules ii. Divergent- broad-minded iii. Functional Fixedness- Cannot think diversely iv. Uncritical- limited, incomplete, simple 1. All or none- black and white 2. Delusions- fooling yourself 3. Coincidence and Cause- creating effects from random events v. Reasoning- Rational 1. Deductive- general to specific 2. Inductive- specific to general vi. Brainstorming 1. Group 2. Many possible ideas 3. Short amount of time vii. Problem Solving- working towards a goal viii. Assimilation- gather together thoughts in an area ix. Accommodation- change the way the way you think b. Units of thought i. Symbols ii. Concepts- personal idea iii. Prototypes- shared idea c. Aspects of Thinking i. Surface structure- face value ii. Deep structure- deeper meaning iii. Syntax- semantics iv. Imagery- mental rep of physical thing v. Means end Analysis- process vi. Subgoals- breaking down a big goal vii. Figurative language- expressive nonliteral I. Motivation- drive a. Motives- goal II. Types of Motives a. Social- learned i. Affiliation Motive- belong ii. Esteem- Respect iii. Asocial- Independence iv. Achievement- Succeed v. Approval- Acceptance vi. Exploratory- Curiosity b. High Need Achievers i. Challenge * ii. Persistent * iii. Do not fear failure iv. Pride * v. Competitive * vi. Intrinsically Motivated vii. Self-Confident* viii. Independent ix. Grades * x. Goals * III. Emotion- complex state of awareness that involves bodily activity a. Theories of Emotion i. James Lange- physical/ emotion ii. Cannon Bard- emotion/ physical iii. Cognitive- think and analyze b. Aspects of Emotion i. Everyone- we all have feelings ii. Release- have to get rid of bottled emotions iii. Stoic/ Expressive- shy/ open iv. Behavior- reactive behavior v. Time- takes time to get over feelings vi. Gender-girls and boys react differently vii. Control- hard to manage I. Stress i. Body’s reaction to threats in our environment ii. Demands exceed resources b. Stressors- causes i. Positive ii. Negative c. Factors i. Personality ii. Control iii. Responsibility iv. Information v. Expectations d. Coping w/ Stress i. Laugh ii. Exercise iii. Escape iv. Perform v. Balance vi. Just Say No vii. Avoid viii. Rest II. Frustration a. Reaction i. Attract- don’t give up ii. Withdraw- give up iii. Destruction- destroy the goal iv. Construction- create a new goal v. Childish- immature b. Conflict i. Approach- Approach ii. Avoidance- Avoidance iii. Approach- Avoidance iv. Complex Approach- Avoidance


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