Popular in Intro to Exercise Science
Popular in Department
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
ECON 205 7080 01
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
SOAN 190 - 05
verified elite notetaker
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah on Saturday August 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ES 190 7174 04 at Truman State University taught by E Jorn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
Reviews for Tester notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 08/13/16
Human Anatomy & Physiology Final Exam Date ____________ First Semester Final Exam Review Sheet CHAPTER 1: THE HUMAN BODY-ORIENTATION 1. Figures to study: a. Figure 1.9 on pg. 17 b. Figure 1.11 on p. 18 2. Differentiate between the main purpose of a negative feedback system and a positive feedback system. Give an example of each and describe how each example demonstrates that type of feedback mechanism. a. Negative feedback- Negates change, Shuts off original stimulus or reduces intensity. NOT BAD THING! keeps body balanced. Ex. Body temp. b. Positive feedback- Enhances original stimulus. Ex. Blood clotting, Labor pains. not as common as neg. feedback 3. Describe the standard anatomical position. Soldier at attention. Standing straight. Feet in line with shoulders, Arms at side, Palms facing out, Thumbs point away from body. 4. List the levels of structural organization from smallest to largest. Chemical level- tissues- organs- organ systems- organisms 5. Describe how the following planes divide the body: a. FRONTAL: Front and back divisions b. SAGITTAL: 2 side- left and right c. TRANSVERSE: Across horizontally 6. What is the function of each of the following systems? a. Endocrine Control the body with use of chemical hormones b. LymphaticProtects the body; destroys bacteria and tumor cells c. Immune Protects the body from disease and bacteria d. Nervous Processes and sends stimulus allowing movement and other things e. Circulatory Pump/move blood throughout the body CHAPTER 4: TISSUES 7. Fill in the following chart regarding the types of tissues found in the body: Tissue Type Basic Structure Functions of tissue Examples (give as type many as possible) Apical surface(top Covers a body surface layer) with microvilli or lines cavity: from Skin, lining of gut, Epithelial projections. Basal boundaries,Protective, glands surface(basement Absorptive, or membrane) secretory Hold body parts Ground substance, together, insulates, Loose & dense, Connective fibers, cells helps transportation of Cartilage, Bone, Blood materials voluntary or Skeletal(attached to Muscle Highly cellular bone), Cardiac(heart), involuntary movement Smooth(hollow organs) Control body functions, Nervous Cell body, Dendrites, carry signals of nervous Nerves, brain, spinal Axon, Neuroglia system as electrical cord, impulses 8. Which of the above functions of epithelial tissue most apply to simple epithelial tissues? Which ones apply the most to stratified epithelial tissues? Absorption-simple epithelial, Protection- stratified epithelial. 9. Draw an example below of the following tissues: simple squamous, simple cuboidal, simple columnar, stratified squamous, pseudostratified columnar. (Label the basement membrane and apical surface.) Describe the structure of each type. Sketch (label basement Type of tissue membrane and apical surface) Description of structure Simple Squamous Simple Cuboidal Simple Columnar Stratified Squamous Pseudostratified Columnar 10.What are the two main components of connective tissue? ___Cells_________________ ____Fibers_______________ a. Which of the two main components makes up the majority of connective tissue? _________Fibers_______ 11.What two things make up the matrix of connective tissue? ____Ground substance_______________ _______Fibers____________ 12. What main characteristic does each of the following types of fibers provide for connective tissue? a. ELASTIC Long, thin, yellow made pf protein elastin b. COLLAGEN Abundant, extremely tough, white protein fibers c. RETICULAR Delicate network around soft tissue of organs and blood vessels 13.Distinguish between hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Hyaline- Smooth glassy, covers the ends of bones, Most common. precursor to bone. Elastic - Least common, retains original shape. Ex. Ear Fibro- Second most common, found in invertebrate discs, joint capsules, and ligaments. strongest of cartilages 14. List and describe the steps of tissue repair. Inflammation- nonspecific reaction that develops quickly and occurs whenever/wherever tissue damage occurs. gets rid of harmful agent, prevent further injury, and restore tissues to healthy condition. Organization- blood clot replaced by granulation tissue. Fibroblasts produce growth factor and collagen fibers form to bridge gap and close wound. Macrophages digest clot, scar tissue develops from granulation Regeneration- surface epithelium regenerates under scab forming new epithelium under scar tissue which may or may not be visible. CHAPTER 5: THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM 15. List the layers of the epidermis, starting at the apical surface and moving toward the basement membrane. Lucid, granular, corneum, spinosum, germinating(basale) Little girls can speak german a. Which layer of the epidermis is only present on the palm of the hand and sole of the foot? ___Lucid layer ________ 16. What is the function of each of the following types of cells: a. MELANOCYTE Produce the pigment melanin b. MEISSNER’S CORPUSCLES Specialized cells that lie beneath papillary layer that provide info the nervous system c. MERKEL CELLS receptor for touch, found along epidermal-dermal border d. KERATINOCYTES Produce keratin e. LANGERHANS’ CELLS Specialized lurkocytes(white blood cells) from bone marrow. identify foreign substances. 17.Differentiate between the following types of skin cancer. a. Basal Cell Carcinoma Cancer cells of the basal layer that invade the dermis and hypodermis b. Squamous Cell Carcinoma keratinocytes of stratum spinosum c. Melanoma Cancer of melanocytes, most dangerous. 18. Fill in the chart about the two layers of the skin: Type of Tissue (one of Innervated/Lacks Layer of Skin the 4 types) Vascular/Avascular nerves Epidermis Epithelial Avascular No Dermis Epithelial, Connective Vascular No 19.What are the two layers of the dermis? Briefly describe both. a. Papillary layer- Superficial region of dermis, composed of areolar tissue b. Reticular layer- deepest region of dermis, made of dense irregular connective tissue, 20.What is the main function of arrector pili muscles? Pull on hair follicles causing hair to stand on end 21. What are the 4 types of sweat (sudoriferous) glands found in the skin? Describe each. a. Eccrine- Sweat through pores found in palms of hand, soles of feet and forehead b. Sebaceous- Secrete oily sebum found on chest, back, scalp, face, and forehead. c. Apocrine- secrete sweat via canals along hair follicles in underarms, pubic area, ect. d. Ceruminous- secrete cerumen(earwax) that deters insects and blocks entry of foreign material. 22. Describe the products and main purpose(s) of sebaceous glands. Oily sebum, lubricate hair and skin 23. Describe the “rule of nines.” What is the purpose of using this calculation? System used to estimate % of burn coverage. Helps estimate severity, and probability of survival. 24. What is the intial threat of extensive third-degree burns? ____Dehydration __________ CHAPTER 6: BONES & SKELETAL TISSUE 25.List 3 functions of the skeletal system. a. Protection b. Support c. Store for calcium 26.Which part of a bone allows it to be a weight-bearing pillar and withstand stress? _____Compact bone(Dense outer layer)________ 27. Describe the structure of spongy bone. Describe the location of spongy bone within long bones? Network of trabeculae(beams) surrounded by spaces filled with red or yellow marrow. At the ends in long bones. 28.What is the main type of skeletal cartilage? ________Hyaline___________________ 29. Draw a general picture of a long bone. Label the parts. (Use Figure 6.3 on p. 180 as a guide) 30. Which vitamin is made by the integumentary system? Describe the function of this vitamin in the body. What homeostatic imbalance can result if this vitamin is not produced in sufficient amounts? Why? Vitamin D, needed for the absorption of dietary calcium. Can cause the body to release PTH causing osteoclasts to release calcium stored in bone into the blood. 31.What is the importance of osteoblasts to bone tissue? Bone builders, lay down new bone 32. What purpose does the Haversian canal of each osteon serve? Core of each osteon, contains blood vessels and nerve fibers 33.Give three examples of each of the following: a. Short bones: Phalanges, Tarsals, scaphoid b. Long bones: femur, humerous, tibia c. Flat bones: sternum, d. Irregular bones: vertebrae, Sacrum, pelvis 34.Describe the importance of the following to bones: a. Osteon: group of hollow tubes of bone matrix growing in concentric rings b. Epiphyseal Plate: Allows bone to grow c. Lacunae: contains nucleus 35. How do the following hormones affect bones: a. Growth Hormone: Stimulates epiphyseal plate allowing bone to grow b. Parathyroid HormoneA :llows calcium to be released from bone by stimulating osteoclast to breakdown bone. c. Calcitonin: Allows calcium to be redeposited by osteoblasts into bone stores. 36.___________false ______________ T/F. If the underlined word is false, write the correct answer in the blank. Fibrocartilage is the early tissue of long bone in embryos. 37. Differentiation between simple and compound fractures. Simple- Doesn’t penetrate skin Compound- penetrates skin CHAPTER 7: BONE IDENTIFICATION 38.How many bones are in the human body? __206_____ 39. List the parts of the axial and appendicular skeleton. a. Axial: Skull, Maxilla/Mandible, Rib, Sternum, Vertebrae, Sacrum/coccyx b. Appendicular: Scapula, pelvis 40. Using Figure 7.27 on p. 238, determine which of the 3 parts of the coxal bone is the largest. ____________Ilium_____ 41. Explain the location of the following sutures of the skull. a. Lamdoid: b. Sagittal: c. Coronal: d. Squamosal: 42. Describe the location of the following: a. Xiphoid process: Cartilaginous section at the lower end of the sternum, not attached to any ribs, and gradually ossifies during adult life. b. Foramen magnum: The hole in base of the skull which spinal cord passes through 43. What are the names of the three regions of vertebrae? Describe the location of each. Cervical- neck and shoulders Thoracic- chest Lumbar- lower back 44. How is the hyoid bone different from any other bone in the body? Is a u-shaped bone that supports the tongue is not directly attached to spinal cord or skull. 45.What is the function of the following: a. Vertebral curves: absorbs shock, helps maintain balance, allows for range of motion throughout spine. b. Axial skeleton: Consists of bones from the skull, trunk, and vertebrae. c. Appendicular skeleton: Consists of bones that make up the appendages 46.The head of the femur fits in the _____Acetabulum____________ (bone marking) of the pelvic girdle. 47. Underline the correct word(s) to best complete the sentence. The fibula ( is / is not ) a weight bearing bone. CHAPTER 8: JOINTS 48.DEFINE: a. BURSITIS: Inflammation of one or more bursae b. SUTURE: Junctions of the skull c. SYNARTHROSES: Immovable joints d. AMIPHIARTHROSES: Slightly moveable e. DIARTHROSES: Freely moveable f. SYNOVIAL JOINTS: articulating bones are separated by a synovial joint cavity g. CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS: symphyses(slightly moveable, intervertebral, and pubic symphyses) h. MENISCUS: Cartilage between two joints allows for movement i. ABDUCTION: Movement away from middle line of body j. ADDUCTION: Movement towards middle line of body k. MULTIAXIAL SYNOVIAL JOINT: Joint that occurs around several axes, Ex. ball and socket l. BIAXIAL SYNOVIAL JOINT: Joint that occurs around two axes, Ex. Saddle joint m. TENDON Dense fibrous tissue connecting muscle to bone n. TENDON SHEATH: Membrane surrounding a tendon allows tendon to stretch, and not adhere to surrounding fascia. 49. Where is articular cartilage found on long bones and why is it important? Is found on the ends of long bones provides a smooth surface for joints and movement 50. Which joint has more displacements: the hip or the shoulder? Why? Shoulder, It is the most mobile joint CHAPTER 11: THE NEURON & NERVE IMPULSES 51.DEFINE: a. DENDRITE: Receives signals from other neurons and conveys message towards cell body b. AXON: Conducting component of neuron, generates nerve impulses away from cell body c. NISSL BODIES: Large granular body found in neurons. Are rough endoplasmic reticulum with free ribosomes. site of protein synthesis d. ABSOLUTE REFRACTORY PERIOD: Period immediately following the firing of a nerve when it can’t be stimulated again no matter how great the stimulus applied. e. SYNAPSE: Gap between two nerves or cells f. NEUROTRANSMITTER: Molecule that binds to receptor g. MYELIN SHEATH: Protects, electrically insulates fibers, and increases speed of transmission h. CROSS BRIDGES: Formed when myosin attaches to actin allow myosin to pull actin along 52. What important function does acetylcholinesterase have in the synaptic cleft? Opens sodium pumps allowing sodium into target cell to depolarize it and continue signal/message 53. Once a nerve impulse has been generated, another one cannot be generated until _____Resting potential_____ has been reestablished. 54.Sketch the phases of an action potential using the diagram on pg. 403 of the book. Describe what occurs during each stage. (use your yellow sheet and write descriptions on there if you prefer.) CHAPTER 9: MUSCLES & MUSCLE TISSUE 55. DEFINE: a. SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM: Elaborate smooth ER runs longitudinally along myofibrils, houses calcium b. ENDOMYSIUM: Areolar connective tissue that covers each individual muscle fiber c. PERIMYSIUM: Connective tissue layer covering bundle of muscle fibers (fascicle) d. MYOSIN: Thick myofilament, Rodlike tail ending in 2 globular heads, 2 interwoven polypeptide chains e. ACTIN: Thin myofilament, helical protein that contains the active site for myosin cross bridge attachment. f. SARCOMERE: Smallest structure of muscle fiber, segment found between successive z discs. g. MYOFIBRIL: Contractile elements, rod- like organelle composed of many myofilaments h. SARCOLEMMA: i. MUSCLE TONE: Caused by myosin pulling on actin 56. Describe the microscopic anatomy of muscle, listing the levels of organization smallest to largest. Myofilaments- myofibrils- muscle fiber- fascicle- muscle organ 57.What is the major function of each of the following during muscle contraction? a. Calcium ions: Bind to troponin and rotate actin, freeing binding spots for myosin b. Sarcoplasmic reticulum: releases calcium into muscle cell c. Myosin cross bridges: Forms connection between myosin and actin allowing myosin to pull actin along its length 58. List as many functions of muscle tissue as possible (listed in notes). Smooth muscle squeezes substances through organs Maintain body posture stabilizes joints Pump blood generates heat 59. Underline the correct words to best complete the sentence. (Hint: You may want to use Chapter 4 for this one.) Skeletal muscle ( is / is not ) striated and has ( short / long) cylindrical cells with ( a single nucleus / many nuclei ) 60. Briefly describe the sliding filament model of contraction. Two filaments side along one another causing sarcomere to shorten and muscle to contract 61.What is rigor mortis? What causes it? Be specific! Dead cells can’t exclude calcium, calcium influx into muscle cells promotes binding of myosin cross bridges, but after breathing stops ATP synthesis stop and without ATP cross bridges can’t detach, so actin and myosin are irreversibly linked. Disappears when muscle proteins break down after several months of death. 62.Muscle tissue has “special powers” because it can change ___Chemical_______ energy into ___________Mechanical ________ energy. 63. Read the section pg. 290 titled “Generation of an Action Potential Across the Sarcolemma.” Summarize what happens during each stage of muscle cell stimulation. Include in your description definitions of the bolded words mentioned in the section. 64.Fill in the following chart regarding muscle tissue: Structural Functional Type of Muscle Tissue Characteristics Characteristics Special Characteristics Striated, attached to voluntary, contracts 40% of body mass Skeletal Muscle skeleton rapidly, but tires easily Nonstriated, Invouluntary, Stomach, urinary, Smooth Muscle Contractions slow and bladder, respiratory sustained Striated Involuntary Only in heart Cardiac Muscle 65. Using the following diagrams, describe in detail what happens from the time the nerve impulse arrives at the end bulb through the end of muscle contraction. CHAPTER 10: MUSCLE IDENTIFICATION 66. How many muscles are there in the human body? ___640___________ 67. DEFINE: a. INSERTION: Moveable attachment of muscle b. ORIGIN: relatively fixed muscle attachment c. PATELLAR LIGAMENT: d. POPLITEAL LIGAMENTS: e. LATERAL (FIBULAR) COLLATERAL LIGAMENT (AKA LCL): f. MEDIAL (TIBIAL) COLLATERAL LIGAMENT (AKA MCL): g. ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT (ACL): h. POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT (PCL): 68. List muscles of the shoulder joint: Pectoralis major, deltoid, trapezius, infraspinatus, teres major 69.List muscles of the knee joint: 70. Give an example of a muscle in the human body that are classified by: a. Shape: b. Location: c. Action: DIAGRAMS: (ALSO SEE POSSIBLE DIAGRAMS ON GOOGLE CLASSROOM) 71.Histology slides from Chapter 4 (all types of tissue and what each looks like) 72.Bones: Skull, Arm, Leg, Ankle, Wrist, Hand, Feet 73. Skin Diagram (with appendages) 74. Neuromuscular junction diagram 75. Anterior and posterior muscles of the body 76.Knee joint
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'