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Practice Notes

by: nichl

Practice Notes

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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by nichl on Saturday August 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Rutgers University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.


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Date Created: 08/13/16
Nick Lusskin Chapter 10 – Thermal Physics Outline Thermal Concepts  High temp flows to lower temp  Thermal equilibrium is when temps in two substances in thermal contact are equal T =T +273  Kelvin: K C  Pressure, volume, and temp are all related F  Pressure of a gas is defined as P= A Heat and Internal Energy  Macroscopic: Big picture, Microscopic: Point of view inside system (usually small)  If temp changes, a gain or loss of energy must have occurred  Energy is either rotational or translational kinetic  Molecules have potential energy because of intermolecular forces  Total random kinetic energy possessed by molecules is referred to as the internal energy  Solids have set shape and volume  Liquids have fixed volume but not shape  Gasses have neither fixed shape or volume Specific Heat Capacity  If heating an object with no energy loss, then change it temp depends on 3 things: o Energy supplied o The mass o The substance of the object  The thermal capacity of an object is th energy required to raise an objects temp by 1 K C= Q  Thermal capacity: ∆T Q  Specific heat capacity m ∆T Q=mc∆T Phases [States] of Matter and Latent Heat  Latent heat is the amount of energy associated with a phase change  From solid to liquid is called fusion, liquid to gas is vaporization Q  Specific Latent Heat: M  Change in heat can measured with an electrical apparatus or calorimeter type device The Gas Laws p =c  Pressure Law: T V =c  Charles’ Law: T 1  Boyle’s Law: =cor  pV=c V pV  Equation of state: T =c pV =universal constant (R)  For any type of gas: nT where n=number of moles of the gas  R = 8.314 Joules per mol kg  Ideal gas: a gas that follows all gas laws for p, V, and T and cannot be liquefied 23  Avogadro Constant N =A6.02*10 N  Molar mass n= N A  State for an ideal gas: p=nRT  Derivations: 2 pV= N E ´K o 3 2 o nRT= N EK 3 N N 2 ´ ´ 3 R o n= N so N RT= N3E ∴EK= K 2 N T A A A o R and NAare constants, so T∝E ´K R o The ratio NA is the Boltzmann’s constant B 3 3 R o E K k TB T 2 2 NA Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas  Newton’s laws apply to molecular behavior  No intermolecular forces except for collisions  Molecules are point particles in constant random motion  Pressure of a gas is a result of molecular collisions  Pressure Law: At a constant volume the pressure of a gas is proportional to its temp in K  Charles’s Law: At a constant pressure the volume of gas is proportional to the temp  Boyle’s Law: At a constant temp, the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume


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