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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kimberly Krause on Saturday August 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 2402 at Tyler Junior College taught by Dr. Cates in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at Tyler Junior College.
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Date Created: 08/13/16
Page 1 of 10 A and P 2 Chapters 1315 Directional terms R= Rostral = Anterior C = Caudal = Posterior Convolution Is the what we call the folds of the gyri and sulci. It’s the pattern of twisted or winkled folds of the brain. The size of the brain doesn’t matter, big or small it does the same thing. What matters is how you use it. Fissure Deep groove Sulci Shallow groove Septum Pellucidum pg. 492 A thin, triangular ventricle double membrane separating the anterior horns of the left and right lateral ventricles of the brain. Insula pg. 497, 505 It is the 5th lobe of the cerebral hemispheres. It’s located deep to the lateral sulcus. Sits on top of and is fused with diencephalon. Pull back the cortex to reveal the insula. It’s primary function involves taste. The illustration is like a mattress coverlet that is king size is tucked into a queen mattress. The tucked in part represents the insula. Basal nuclei (ganglion) pg. 504 Is a collection of gray matter in the cerebrum including the corpus striatum and amygdala. Has important connections with other regions of the brain, thalamus, subthalamic nuclei, red nucleus, and substantial nigra. Important in coordinating movement. Major diseases associated with basal nuclei: Parkinson’s disease (tremors, rigid muscles, dementia. Loss of dopamine and melanin) With Parkinson’s disease basal nuclei can’t speak or walk but because cerebellum is still good, they can sing and dance. Huntington’s disease (memory loss and jerking movements called chorea “dance” to much dopamine), Cerebral palsy (various motor problems paralysis, seizures due to brain damage before birth). Pituitary gland (hypophysis growth below) pg. 482483, 506, 508 They named it pituitary gland because not knowing anything about it, they observed it was mucus producing. The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland produces 6 hormones. The posterior gland produces 2. The neck is called the Infundibulum. Meninges pg. cranial 490492 Pia mater Arachnoid mater subarachnoid space contains the cerebrospinal fluid. Dura mater Page 2 of 10 Dense irregular connective tissue layer of two layers: Meningeal layer and periosteal layer. These two layers are fused together until they get to the dural venous sinus. spinal 538540 Pia mater goes to coccyx bone filmin terminale holds it down. If you pinch PM the end is triangular or cone shape. The sharpe edge on the spinal cord is the denticulate ligament. It looks like teeth and it anchors it to the vertebral column. Arachnoid goes to L5 and it makes a pouch at the end the that has the CSF. L34 or L45 are safe to take the spinal tap sampling. Dural venous sinus pg. 491 Blood filled triangular cross section. Drain blood from brain. No valves like regular veins. Sinus means something that’s not round. Superior sagittal sinus inferior sagittal sinus Arachnoid villi pg. 495 returns excess CSF to the blood within the dural venous sinus. One way flow. Choroid Plexus pg. 492 composed of ependymal cells and blood capillaries that lie within the pain mater. CSF is produced by secretion of a fluid from the ependymal cells that originates from the blood plasma. Makes 1/2 L of CSF. Nerves are very delicate. If there is pressure on them, they will turn off signals to other places. Blood Brain Barrier pg. 495 Regulates substances that enter the interstitial fluid of the brain. Prevents exposure to drugs, waste, and hormones etc that could negatively affect brain function. The Astrocytes (glial cells) wrap their perivascular feet around the capillaries. Lipidsoluble compounds like drugs, nicotine, alcohol, and some anesthetics can diffuse across the endothelial (tight junctions) plasma membranes into the interstitial fluid of the CNS and reach the neurons. Blood brain barrier is NOT located in choroid plexus, hypothalamus, or pineal gland, because they have to do with blood or hormones. TBI Traumatic Brain injury Concussion (temporary disorientation because of shock wave) Contusion (causes a tear and a disconnection) Hematoma pg. 491 Pooling of blood outside a vessel. They are dangerous because if you press them if could turn off a nerve. Subdural hematoma occurs in the subdural space between the dura mater and arachnid mater. Fast or violate rotation of the head. This is the more dangerous type. Hemorrhage Is loosing blood through a ruptured blood vessel. Causes a stroke. Meningitis pg. 492 Is an inflammation of meninges, caused by viral or material infection. It allows infection to spread into the CSF and for this reason it spreads fast. Hydrocephalus (Water on the brain) Excess CSF. High blood pressure is another name for this. A baby would survive because the fontanels allow room for expansion of the head. Page 3 of 10 Hypothalamus Is a part of the endocrine system and is also involved in the Parasympathetic and Sympathetic nervous systems. Controls the pituitary gland. Hunger and Thirst Lateralization pg. 503 Each cerebral hemisphere Each could do the same thing, now they do both hands. Use both side so they aren’t so lateralization. When you were born you could do the same things. Right hand left hemisphere: Reason, 2+2 is 4, exact definition, look for answer, show math work, crisp dark lines, explain why things are cute, they created the language, Engineers. Categorical hemisphere. Left hand (latin: Sinister) right hemisphere: think outside the box, make up words, like colors, hunches are right, Rhetoric Shakespeare. feeling with the words, artistic, 2+2 is many, Architecture. Representational hemisphere. Pons, 4th ventricle, and Cerebellum are all in a row. Medulla Oblongata pg. 512 Two longitudinal ridges are seen on the medulla called pyramids. They house the motor projection tracts called corticospinal tracts, bundles of axons “cables.” Stand out dramatically. Where they fade is where decussation occurs. As a result of each cross over, each cerebral hemisphere controls the voluntary movements of the opposite side of the body. CC = Cardiac Center (heart rate Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nervous System component) VC = Vasomotor Center blood vessel muscle distribution of blood. Be hungry with test. Blood goes to brain. Vasodilation. Respiratory Center Clusters of nuclei Coughing, sneezing, salivation, swelling, gagging, and vomiting. A hard twist to the head will put a shockwave through the head and will kill a person. Same thing will happen if you hit someone in the back head. With these injuries depending on the aggressiveness of the shockwave, it can start out with passing out, but can lead to death. Decussation pg. 512 Happens in the medulla. Crossing from one hemisphere to another at the corpus callosum (which connects the hemispheres and is the main method of communication between hemispheres). Because of the information crossing, 80% crosses to opposite side and 20% go to the same side. With a stroke on one side of then brain they loose the 80%, but they can pick up at least 20% on their good side of the brain. Reticular Formation pg. 516 Lets info in and from their you can figure out which muscle. Reticular means “straight.” Motor component: Assists in autonomic functions such as respiration, blood pressure and heart rate by working with medulla and pons. Page 4 of 10 Sensory component is RAS (Reticular activating system). Alerts cerebrum to incoming information. Processes visual, auditory, and touch stimuli and using the info to keep us in a state of mental alertness. RAS wakes us up.Lets you forget. When you go to sleep it’s like crawling into the sheets and shutting off sensory. Limbic System (Emotional brain) pg. 515 Form ring or border around diencephalon. Thanksgiving you fell from a tree, so now every Thanksgiving you feel nervous. Emotion is attached to turkey and trees. Natzi’s used RAS and Limbic to push their agenda. Regions of the brain Optic area decides what they see. Optic nerves see it, but that occipital area perceives the information. We have TWO occipital lobes. Auditory cortex, then goes to the association part to understand it. Precentral Gyrus learn patterns choose muscles. This is the commander part. Premotor area is where the plan is made or the pattern is recognized. Postcentral Gyrus (Somatosensory) awareness of location. Knowing. Proprioceptor pg. 604 (mechanoreceptor) muscles, tendons, ligaments, capsules, articulations. Detect change in movement. Are connected to body image. People are constantly recreating their body image. You can walk up the starts through Precentral and Postcentral. Engineers make each step equal. Clumsiness is the mess up in coordination between the two. Drunk people and teenagers get the motor and sensory and gnostic areas uncoordinated. This means their proprioceptors aren’t coordinated. When a person feels the limb they moved it is the sensory and gnostic area working. When they are driving a car, they add the car to their body image. Tools and sports are extensions of body image. When Mr. Cates was hang gliding, he had an accident and was knocked out. When he started coming to, he felt like a brain floating in blackness, that was because his proprioceptors had to start to bring the thoughts back to him like where his body was etc. When you are dreaming it takes bits and pieces of your mind and puts it together to create a story. Gnostic area pg. 501 Knowing. Sense of body image/position Athlete coordination. Like knowing where you nose is located. Composed of parietal, occipital and temporal lobes. Integrates all somatosensory, visual, and auditory information being processed by the association areas within the lobes. When dancers wiggle or stretch before dancing, that helps them “know” where all their body parts are. Dancing with the stars, at first they dance with the intellect, but gnostic is where they feel the beat. Agnostic I don’t know Broca area Choose muscles for sounds. If you don’t learn by age 7 to make a sound, you probably won’t learn to make it. Wernike area Arranging words, grammar, verb tense. Page 5 of 10 Children must go through every stage in development. If they skip a stage, they may be lacking later on in other areas. If they skip crawling it is believed that they will have a hard time talking. Thalamus Sensory relay center. When information accidentally gets sent to the association part first that is when we experience déja vu. To Mozart sounds had color. That was the thalamus sending it to to places. It works for you or against you. That’s why his symphonies were so incredible. 2 senses with one thing. In between the thalamus is the interthalamic adhesion (bridge) pg. 506. Hypothalamus pg. 508 Controls emotions. Pleasure vs. Rage. Can do violent things, even if cerebrum says no. Chemical imbalance can set one of these off. A narrowing of blood vessel or a clot or aneurysm can “press” the rage button. Cocaine can do the same thing to the pleasure area. An experiment was done with rats having a lever they could get on that would hit the pleasure center in their brain. Once they found how to turn it on, they forgot about food and died because they are constantly pressing it. Dieting works in this part of your brain. It has a “set mark” that makes you feel hungry/full. If you fill yourself too full, pancreas dumps a bunch of insulin into your system and in a short time, you want to each again. Anorexic people can’t eat more without being sick, because they trained their hypothalamus mark to be so low, that when they eat a “normal” amount they feel like they’ve gorged. To over come this they must slowly have their food intake brought up. You can get “fuzzy spots” on hypothalamus. Like when you forget what you were going to get in a room. Does control the pineal gland. Controls limbic system. President of the autonomic nervous system. Pineal gland pg. 505 Endocrine gland. Produces Melatonin calming, sleep. Light or darkness depends nohow we feel. That’s why animals hibernate. Winter depression. UV rate. Biology/sociology running into each other. Men make more testosterone in the spring. March hare in Alice in Wonderland more mating. Mad Hatter mercury making them crazy. Melatonin regulates the circadian rhythm. Circadian rhythm Sleep cycle. Kids wake up and go to sleep at a regular time. Monday will feel so bad because sleep cycle has been messed up. Baby wakes up at a certain time. Baby can get in sync with you. Kids respond to a break in the pattern. If a kid or an animal is shy, don’t look them in the eyes, instead ignore them. That will be perceived as weird to them (break in pattern) and want to figure you out. Odd or foreign chemicals can make you have a fever even if you aren’t sick. A dad getting bumped repetitively with kids might have a fever due to the destroyed cells being broken off and loose. Corpora Quadremina Is the back of the midbrain Page 6 of 10 Superior colliculi visual reflex Inferior colliculi auditory reflex If you startle old people you know their mid brain is good. Babinzy reflex is “boo” Cerebellum pg. 513 Dance moves fine tune movements. Folia and vermis. Homunculus Motor and Sensory figure that should how many neurons each area has in the body. Seed in teeth is more painful compared to an arrow in a leg. Genes XX women XY men If a man has something wrong with his genes it’s more noticeable, because he doesn’t have a good gene to rely on. STM Short term memory. Break it down to groups. LTM practice it. Pattern long term. Cranial Nerves Remember there are 24 cranial nerves. 12 pairs. CN I, II, VIII Sensory. CN X Vagus Longest nerve. Parasympathetic. Comes off brain so that’s why paralyzed people can still be living. Sympathetic system comes off spinal cord so you can get a injury and skeletal muscles are not functional. Central White Matter pg. 502 White matter lies deep to the gray matter of the cerebral cortex. It is composed primarily of myelinated axons. Bundles of the axons are tracts. These are split into three categories. 1. Association tracts Connect different regions of the cerebral cortex within the same hemisphere. Short association tracts are composed of accurate fibers. they connect neighboring gyri within the same lobe. Example is tract that connects premotor with primary motor cortex (in Frontal lobe). Longer association tracts, called longitudinal fasciculi connect gyri in different lobes of the same hemisphere. Ex. tract that connects Wernicke area to motor speech area. 2. Commissural tracts Extend between the cerebral hemispheres through bridges called commissures. CORPUS CALLOSUM. 3. Projection tracts Page 7 of 10 Link the cerebral cortex to both the inferior brain regions and the spinal cord. Ex. corticospinal tracts that carry motor signals from cerebrum to the brainstem and spinal cord. Dura in spine does not adhere to the vertebrae. Conduction of pathways pg. 541 Decussation is the crossing over. Contralateral is opposite side. Ipsilateral means the same side. Gray Matter of Spinal Cord pg. 539 Anterior horns have cell bodies of somatic motor neurons which innervate skeletal muscles. Somatic motor nuclei in the anterior horn innervate skeletal muscle. Lateral horns are found in T1L2 parts of the spinal cord only. The lateral horns contain cell bodies of the autonomic motor neurons with innervate cardiac muscles, smooth muscle, and gland. Autonomic motor nuclei innervate smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and gland. Posterior horns have the axons of the sensory neurons and the cell bodies of interneurons. Somatic sensory nuclei receive nerve signals from sensory receptors, such as pain or pressure. Visceral sensory nuclei receive nerve signals from blood vessels and viscera. Gray commissure Page 8 of 10 Is the connection line inbetween the horns. Contains unmyelinated axons and serves as a communication route between right and left sides of the gray matter. Polio attacks motor neurons. Rabies is another disease associated with the spinal cord. Nerves braided together is called Plexus. Thoracic portion does not braid into a plexus. Dermatome is a map of nerves on skin of body. Shingles pg. 550 Pregnant ladies can get shingles. It’s a reactivation of childhood chickenpox infection. Stress, other infections, and even a sunburn can trigger shingles. The virus stays in the posterior root ganglion, when it becomes reactivated it travels through the sensory axons to the dermatome. Rash and blisters. Referred Pain Source and pain origin are in different places. For example the beginning of a heat attack can be detected by pain in the left hand. Some medicines like acupuncture can use this to their advantage. Reflexology. Motion sickness is helped by pressure on the wrists. Sciatic nerve Page 9 of 10 Sciatic nerve runs down the backside and back leg. Must be careful when getting an injection to only go into the gluteus medius. Some people have unknowingly given injections in the gluteus maximus and have given people sciatica. Especially be careful with children. Epidural space is only located in spinal cord. Monosynaptic Reflex (pg 565) is with 2 neurons and has 1 synapse Polysynaptic Reflex is with 3 neurons and has 2 synapse Chapter 15 Autonomic nervous system Neurotransmitters and Receptors pg. 588 Neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft after nerve signal. In order for them to bind to the cell body of the other nerve there must be a receptor ready to receive the neurotransmitter. Whether EP and NE are called neurotransmitters or hormones depends on their location. 2 types of receptors 1. Cholinergic Receptor (ACh is the neurotransmitter that is binds) Nicotinic receptors (smoking) (found on cell bodies and cells of adrenal medulla) Muscarinic (mushrooms) (found on all target plasma membranes in para. and a few in sympa) 2. Adrenergic Receptor (NE and E are the neurotransmitters that bind to these receptors) Alpha (located in plasma membranes of most smooth muscle cells and stimulate smooth muscle contraction, and pancreas to inhibit insulin secretion, blood clotting) Beta (drug of choice because it turns off sympathetic nervous system and calms people down) (have stimulatory effect, found within heart, kidney, inhibitory effects) Parasympathetic has a long axon on the first ganglion and short on the second. Has a long way to travel to the organs. They are found way out from the spine or in the organs. Sympathetic is closer to the spinal cord because in an emergency they will need to be active fast. First ganglion is short, second longer. Page 10 of 10