Lecture notes for POLS 207
Lecture notes for POLS 207 207
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This 64 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michael Akinyeye on Saturday August 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 207 at Texas A&M University taught by Escobar-Lemmon, Maria in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see State & Local Government in POLS at Texas A&M University.
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Date Created: 08/13/16
Legislatures (part 2) The Nature of Representation 3) Allocation of Representatives – Partisan Concerns a) Gerrymandering i) Definition- Districts clearly drawn with the intent of pressing partisan advantage at the expense of other considerations. ii) Legality? – Partisan appointment is legal b) Example: How to split a district (Must be split according to population) i) Parties want the split to be favorable enough so they have representation for their party c) Can race be used as a factor in drawing district? i) Majority-Minority districts (protected groups) – Could not draw lines to where it would be disadvantage to these groups. ii) Majority of the population had to be a minority group – this way the population would most likely vote someone that represents the majority population of the minority iii) Once these districts are created you aren’t able to redraw them (limitation) d) So what? Does partisan district drawing matter? i) In 2003 Texas Legislature redrew district bounds for US house of representative. Republican are able to flip the partisan complex in their favor. (1) 1999: Demo- 17 Rep- 15 (2) 2003: Demo- 11 Rep- 21 Who are our legislators? 4) Professionals vs. Amateurs i) Full-time vs. hybrid vs. part-time legislatures (a) Characteristics of – salary, resources available (staff), extent of high or low turnover, and the extent that it produces career politicians or people who are only there for a small amount of time, but comeback periodically. (b) See Map 7-4, page 200 – (i) Full Time primarily located high population states. Those who are full-time devote ¾ of their time to the job. In session most of the year and has more staff members compared to the other groups. (ii) Part Time isn’t able to respond fast to the executive branch’s orders, but a full time legislature will be in session when these decisions are being made. This quick response allows for a better system of checks and balances ii) What is professionalization? (a) Concept -= “Enhancement of the legislature’s capacity to perform its role in the policy-making process with an expertise, seriousness, and effort comparable to other actors in that process.” (Mooney 1995) (b) 2 Requirements (i) Commanding members attention (ii) Giving members adequate resources iii) Measuring professionalization: 3 components (a) Most vs. least professionalized states iv) What makes a legislature become more professionalized (a) 4 reasons (i) Prior level of professionalization (experience) (ii) Population growth (iii)Removing limits on session length (correlates with professional level) (iv) Regional diffusion v) So what? Does professionalization matter? When considering how much time and effort legislature will take, yes. vi) States are becoming more like the US House 5) Assessing Descriptive Representation i) To what extent do state legislatures look like the population as a whole? – If the state has a large population of a minority group, the state legislature will have more Latinos and blacks in their legislature (a) Women – 50.7% US population & 24% state legislatures (b) African-Americans – 15.1% US population & 6% state legislatures (c) Hispanic/Latino – 12.8% US population & 4% state legislatures (d) See Table 7.2 on page 198-99. (e) Animated graphs shown in class available at: (i) https://sites.google.com/site/comparingthestates/home/motion- graphs/50-state-motion-charts/latino-state-legislators-1993-2011 (ii) https://sites.google.com/site/comparingthestates/home/motion- graphs/texas-motion-charts/gender-of-texas-legislators-1844- 2009 ii) Turnover and occupation (1) Turnover has gone over time 6) Do women and minority legislators make a difference? Based on: Thomas, Sue. 1991. “The Impact of Women on State Legislative Policies” Journal of Politics 53(4): 958-976. a) Do women advocate for women’s interests? i) Expect men and women to care about different topics ii) Do more (or fewer) women in the chamber affect women’s (and men’s) priorities and success of passing women’s interest bills? (1) Higher levels female reps => higher level policy priority difference (2) No difference on any other issues (except women, children, family) (3) More women in leg => more success in passing these bills (4) More women in legislature => more women, children, family bills (5) Most women in legislature => passing most women, children, family bills iii) Patterns of bill introduction b) Is the playing field levels i) Do minority groups support each other’s interests? ii) Are minority legislators as successful iii) Hypotheses (1) AA more “black interest bills”; women more “women interest” (2) AA and W more education, health care, child welfare, poverty (3) AA more women interest; women more “black interest” (4) Women = success of men; AA < white success iv) Data v) Findings c) The intersection of Race and Gender on Policy Reingold, Beth and Adrienne Smith. 2012. “Welfare Policymaking and Intersections of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in US State Legislatures” American Journal of Political Science 56(1): 131-147. i) Measures: (1) Cash benefits (2) Restrictiveness of eligibility (3) Flexibility in imposing work requirements (4) “family cap” (limitation on benefits if child born to mother receiving aid) (5) Domestic violence waivers ii) Results: Intersectional Models iii) Conclusions About the essays and collective action Misunderstandings about collective action Not all problems are collective action problems. Simply having to convince elected officials that a lot of people want something does not make it collective action. In fact those are often cases where unilateral action is sufficient – and a group is trying to get unilateral action. Collective action requires everyone to act BUT everyone has a selfish desire to do the opposite. The key to showing it is a collective action problem is to show that individual interest and group interest diverge. Solutions – some comments Information is not the only barrier to collective action and awareness not the only solution. Frequently solutions involve changing incentives. Additional Examples of C.A.P.s Recycling vs. trash Batteries Soda cans Leave your trash on the picnic table or walk out of your way to the trash can How does convenience change the incentive structure? How does criminalizing it? Federalism, part 1: the basics (Jan 21) I. Defining the terms A. The need for subnational/territorial organization 1. Needs- To organize larger states within the nation 2. Solutions How to control each level of government “equally” 3. Advantages of different levels Allocation- overcoming efficiency in the market. How much public service should be provided Distribution- how much of a role should government play in incoming revenue in the country. Stabilization- Macroeconomic policy Different levels of government are better at different things*** B. How to structure the state 1. Unitary States (More common)- Political system in which power is concentrated in a central government. Central government grants powers to the regional governments. Regional governments are empowered by the Central government based on how they see fit. 2. Confederacy or Confederal Arrangements- Political system in which power is concentrated in regional governments. Independent states or governments grants legal authority to central government. The central government exists because the independent governments give them power (illustrates articles of confederation). 3. Federal States- Attempt to divide power between regional and national government. Responsibilities and powers divided between central government and regional governments or states; neither level is dependent upon the other for its power. Central and regional governments are both sovereign. C. Comparing Federal and Unitary States 1. Similarities Subnational governments Democracies and non-democracies 2. Differences Power of the subnational governments Distinct domains of powers Difficult to determine where sovereignty lies II. Variations on the Theme A. Symmetrical Federalism- Every unit within the federation has the same amount of responsibilities. B. Asymmetrical Federalism- Some parts of the federation have more responsibilities than others. *Relating to economics, what is produced in the country, issues of language (language of the nation/country) and social autonomy. III. Centralization and Decentralization of Power A. What does centralization/decentralization of power mean? How the power in government is circulated and more present in Devolution = decentralization… Central government has less control B. How does centralization/decentralization relate to the federal/unitary divide? Possible to have decentralized unitary states (states have more power, but the central government still has the final say) and centralized federal states. Peripheralized Federations (Federal and decentralized) The US government always stays federal but goes back and forth from Centralized and decentralized power Constitutional structure + distribution of power = How politics works IV. Advantages/disadvantages of federalism A. Advantages of federalism Allows experimentation Large diverse territory Check on central government Government closer to citizens B. Disadvantages of federalism Complicated Competing laws Check on the center (drinking age) enforce law OR you don’t get funding Complicated process/ redundant National and subnational government conflict – policy delay Jurisdiction is unclear Bad policy possible Unequal services Exploitation, no protection, ethnic minorities C. Is federalism worth the cost? (Do advantages outweigh disadvantages?) Participation and Collective Action, Part 3 (Chapter 5) I. States and Elections A. US Constitution and voting 1. Article 1, US Constitution: “The electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors for the most numerous branch of the state legislature.” B. States control elections through ballot regulation 1. States impose different regulations on elections 2. Regulations reinforce political culture 3. This leads to 50 different election codes C. Control over elections meant control over who voted 1. Limited (restricted) suffrage 2. Restrictions have declined, registration rules still matter. D. How history might affect turnout and voting today. Example of regulating who votes in Texas. Limitations on suffrage were used by people in power to extend their ability to win. 1. 1902 – 1964 (1966) Poll Tax- Restriction that passed a tax that cost $0.75 – This was directed at poor white farmers (Democrats instigated this tax since this group affected their chances of winning) 24th Amendment passed prohibited the poll tax… Supreme Court modification disallowed the states from putting this tax into action. 1964 was the last election that the Poll Tax was in effect. 1964 – 2.4million people voted 1968 – 4.1 million people voted (No Poll Tax) 2. 1923 – 1945 “White Primary” – African Americans were not allowed to vote in the Democratic Primary (1923) Texas was a one party democratic state… Passing this action allowed the party to secure the State for Democrats. The Supreme Court eventually said this was unconstitutional. Private organizations can exclude people (This is what the Democratic party is NOT) 3. Until 1970s Property Requirements – Very common* Applied to local elections. Cut out lower income people. This is eventually solved in 1970’s by Texas moving away from the property requirement 4. 1966 – 1971 Annual Registration System – Adopted by Texas, Voters were required to register between Oct. 1st and January 31 . This forced people to renew their voter status every year. This was to detour lower income people. 1971 – Supreme Court stops the use of this system 5. 1972 Permanent Registration System- Progressive registration system that correct problems from the past. Like the present election system. 6. Current requirements (discussed above) a) 30 day advance registration- registering closer to the election date b) Voter ID law- New method to lower turnout 7. How might this whole series of events affect turnout today? What is the bottom line? – All these things successfully restricted voter registration which may be why turnout in Texas is lower than elsewhere in the country II. The Collective Action Problem A. Individual v. Collective Action 1. Individual Action = Actions taken by one person. Action is based on Sally Cooperates Sally Act Selfishly personal decisions. (Remain silent) (Confesses) 2. Colle Harry Cooperates S 2: H 2 S 1 : H 10 ctive Action (Remains silent) = Actions Harry Acts Selfishly S 10: H 1 S 5: H 5 taken by a (Confesses) group. Decisions are made by the group (or collectively). B. Heart of the Problem 1. Conflict between individual interest and group interests a) What are individual interests- Where you alone can benefit the most b) What are group interests- Going with the general thoughts of the group and going with the safer plan. 2. A situation in which everyone has a choice between two alternative and where if everyone involved acts rationally (in economic sense) the outcome will be worse for everyone involved than if they all chose the alternative (were economically irrational) C. Prisoner’s Dilemma 1. The story or the setup:. When Harry meets Sally a) Sally and Harry rob a bank or three b) Police suspect Harry and Sally but lack sufficient evidence c) Police and the DA question Harry Sally separately and offer them a deal. d) Harry and Sally cannot talk to each other 2. Payoffs - 3. What is the heart of the dilemma? Figuring out what your partner will do – Seeing which deal is the most beneficial for just you D. Tragedy of the Commons 1. Defined: Selfish (and economically rational) action by individuals leads to overuse and collapse of a common or shared (but limited) resource. Originally used for cow grazing -> Caused a collective program which made the grazing grass unable to keep up with the eating habits of the cows. Looking back on it, there should’ve been a moderation of grazing E. Free riders, a challenge for collective action 1. Defined: Benefiting from collective action, but not cooperating. a) Moocher study group member F. Overcoming the collective action problem – strategies 1. Government Regulation a) Make it illegal to act selfishly; cooperation = legal requirement b) Examples: (1) Emission stickers/checks (2) Fishing/hunting licensing and quotas 2. Private Ownership a) Restrict access; exclude non-contributors b) Their individual interest => protection c) Example: Toll Roads- attempt to extract money from people who are using the resource 3. Community Mobilization a) Social Norms – rules that society follows. Possibly stopping selfish behavior that goes against collective action. This affects how people may behave towards certain actions. These actions could be legal/illegal. Social norms are created to overcome collective action. b) Social desirability can shape costs of noncompliance- what happens when you go in the opposite direction of the norm. III. Direct Democracy A. Direct v. Representative Democracy 1. Direct = citizens decide on issues 2. Representative = citizens elect leaders to decide for them 3. Adv. And Disadv. Of direct democracy Adv. o Government more responsive – consideration/interest of issue o Increases turnout o California example: Voting against high controversial issues (MUST VOTE AGAINST) Disadv. o Tyranny of the majority (51% vs. 49%) o Concern of unsound policy (Arizona groundwater) – people aren’t properly informed o Bad provision for compromise/revision. Take it or leave it. Take the whole thing or don’t accept it. B. Mechanisms (definitions) 1. Ballot initiatives 2. Referenda (Referendum) – agree or reject a piece of legislative by vote 3. Recall 4. Ballot initiatives v. legislative referendum C. Consequences D. Limits E. Arguments for Direct Democracy (why is it good) F. Arguments against Direct Democracy (why is it bad) G. Adopted most commonly where? 1. Progressive Era (1902 – 1918) a) 16 states adopted ballot initiative procedures than b) only 5 do later 2. Many of those to have are Western states. IV. Protest and Public Opinion A. Public Opinion Matters – pressuring upon law makers to give into the protesters opinions 1. In general politicians respond to public opinion 2. how do politicians know what citizens think? B. Protest as participation 1. Organized protests – marches, demonstrations, disruptions, civil disobedience – all are forms of political activity 2. Do they work? Depends… I. Participation (chapter 5) I. Forms of Political Participation a. Defined i. Political participation is taking part in activities related to governance. 1. Anyone can be involved b. Activities i. Voting ii. Involvement in campaigns 1. Helping those who are running for office iii. Contacting officials/lobbying 1. Shaping the issue space 2. Person may have a strong attachment to a particular issue and feels the need to get behind it and push for the candidate with the same view 3. Officials reach out to supporters in various ways 4. Happens at all levels of government c. Types of Political Participants i. Inactive (Hold the largest percentage of political participation) 1. do not participnde (H) ii. Voting Specialists (2 largest) 1. Vote (and that’s all) (A) iii. Parochial Participants 1. Write letters about a particular issue and that’s it (E) iv. Campaigners 1. Vote (A), campaign (B), display bumper stickers (C), Give $ (D), talk politics (G)rd v. Communalist (Issue driven) (3 largest) 1. Vote (A), write letters (E), attend marches (F) vi. Complete activist 1. Vote (A), campaign,(B) wear T-shirt (C), Give $ (D) , write letters (E), attend marches (F), talk politics (G) (or most of them): II. Why people participate (or Don’t) a. What they say i. Top 10 reasons people say they don’t vote 1. Polls tell you the results 2. Climate -> sickness 3. Vote wont count 4. Angry at politicians 5. No idea about what they’re voting for 6. Ignorance b. The research: i. Socioeconomic explanations (Prediction on who ends up voting) 1. Age (older = more likely to vote) 2. Income (employed, homeowners, and larger income individuals tend to be more likely to vote) 3. Race/Ethnicity (whites and African Americans tend to be more likely to vote compared to Hispanics) 4. Education (Higher education = higher participation) ii. Political Culture iii. Electoral Competition iv. Election Type v. Voting Laws III. Which states participate? a. From Individual to aggregate explanations i. Socioeconomic explanations are individual reasons why people don’t vote. ii. Can they tell us anything about which states have higher turnout? 1. Or which parts of a state do – determined mainly on the percentage of groups/individuals that typically don’t vote. This affects the schemes of how politicians spread out their influence 2. Turnout = % of those eligible to vote who do vote a. Voter turnout has high variation across the nation b. Turnout very dependent on the education and economic status Source: http://coopercenterdemographics.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/2008- turnout-education-and-poverty1.jpg See also: http://coopercenterdemographics.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/2008- national-general-election-turnout-by-county.jpg b. Political Culture i. What is it? 1. Represents a shared set of norms and values about politics 2. Elections are the primary mechanism for expressing attitudes and beliefs about government 3. How you approach politics ii. 3 types of political culture (South – mostly traditionalistic, North – moralistic, Middle – individualistic 1. Moralistic- “Minnesota Liberals” a. Politics and government are seen as a means to achieve collective good b. Citizen should be involved c. Working for the government should be something to be proud of d. Ex. Map 1-2 Pg. 12 2. Individualistic – “Every man for himself” a. Politics and government are seen as just another way to achieve individual goals 3. Traditionalistic “Texas Conservatives” a. Politics and government is dominated by elites b. Believe that government has a role in society iii. Culture and Turnout 1. Pg. 118 Table 5-1 2. Higher percentage in moralistic states c. The type of election can influence turnout i. Midterm vs. Presidential ii. People think they know who’s going to win already iii. Competitiveness of the field Source: http://www.fairvote.org/research-and-analysis/voter-turnout/ d. How competitive the election is matters too e. Voting laws can change outcomes i. Vote by mail: Oregon Example ii. 1998 – Oregon will exclusively vote by mail. This system only increased the trend of voting turnout slightly (doesn’t really show a big difference) iii. The trends of VBM don’t support that it made voting easier so people came for a bigger turnout iv. 30 states have VBM (vote by mail) laws 1. Method was thought to get more people involved, but if someone just doesn’t have the information or drive they will choose to not vote 2. Practical concerns 3. Measure 60 in 1998 a. Refers to ballot initiative in Oregon where you could only use VBM 4. Draws on Gronke, Paul and Peter Miller. 2012. “Voting by mail and turnout in Oregon: Revisiting Southwell and Burchett” American Politics Research 40: 976. 5. Change to VBM didn’t cause a large flux in voting turnout 6. Large flux is special elections * v. Registration Requirements 1. Can make it easier/harder for individuals to vote 2. North Dakota doesn’t make voters register before the day of election 3. 6 states allow you to register the day of the election vi. “Motor Voter” 1. Why is 1993 Voter Registration Act a big deal? a. US congress passed that it was required when people applied for a license or welfare; people were offered to register to vote. This also meant that states were forced to do mail registration/ b. Tells states how to administer elections c. Main basis was to get as many people as possible to vote (minorities) 2. How do I register to vote in Texas? What are requirements to vote? a. 30 days before the election b. Automatically receive a new certificate every two years if you haven’t moved c. Proof of ID i. Drivers license ii. ID card iii. Concealed handgun license iv. Passport v. Military ID vi. Citizenship vii. Election identification certificate f. Why turnout and participation matters IV. States and Elections a. US Constitution and voting i. The electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors for the most numerous branch of state legislature (Article 1, US constitution) *one of the only parts that talks about voting 1. Who has primary responsibility for conducting elections? a. State Governments b. States control elections through ballot regulation i. States impose different regulation on the conduct of elections (Used to have political parties do their own ballot printing) ii. Regulations reinforce political culture iii. This leads to 50 different election codes c. Control over election meant control over who voted i. Limited suffrage ii. Restriction down, registration rule still matter – This allows more individuals (mainly minorities) to register and vote iii. States vary in their imposed restrictions – allowed dominant interest to rule Political Parties (Chapter 6) 1) Characteristics i) What is a political party? (1)Organization that chooses, supports, and nominates candidates for elected offices. ii) What are the functions of a party? (1)Nominate and select candidate (2)Aggregation of interest – identify what common interest is and making it into a manageable proposal (3)Provide information shortcut for voters – Not knowing candidate, but knowing that their side with your party allows you to know what their stances/opinions are (4)Make the task of governing easier – like-minded people who would agree with each other’s decisions. iii) How are parties different from interest groups? (1)Parties seek office (a)Interest groups/social movements can turn into political parties (2)Interest groups seek certain policies iv) Organization and Structure (a) National parties or state parties? (i) State parties are the primary organizing units. It has to have some sort of organizational structure to be able to run in an election (ii)National parties are active in every state 1. Structure is in response to the way our electoral college is set up as well as the voting system. (b) Degree and form of organization varies by state (i) How big the organization field is – different between states (c) What characterizes parties in the United States? (i) “National” political parties don’t really exist and are in fact a collection of state parties. No such thing as “fundamental differences” in how the major parties are organized. 2) Parties and Voters: Changing Patterns of Partisan Support a) Trends in Party Identification. What do you learn from the graph? What patterns are evident? i) Voting for the parties are changing overtime ii) Correlation of the two lines are inverse iii)Relatively large portion of the population chooses independent iv)Age group breakdown: (1)Large gap between Demo and Rep in Millennial graph b) How do those trends vary across different groups? i) Identification with major parties has declined, identification with independents increased. ii) Nationally, party politics focus on capturing swing voters (1)Consequences: Parties tend to reach towards the middle to get more voters. This reach means distorting the views/rules they agree with so more people will vote for them. c) Identification with major parties has declined, identification with independents increased d) Responsible party model: i) A theory that political parties offer clear policy choices to voters, try to deliver on those policies when they take office, and are held accountable by voters for the success or failure of those policies. ii) Easier If parties are meaningful – Stay with the views they already have 3) The changing role of parties a) Political machines and patronage characterized party politics in the past i) Machines (organization controlled by a group of people who stay together to block out/punish those who are against them and reward those who are with them with favored policies) bred loyalty. How? Rewards supporters (1) System was setup so that people felt loyal to a particular party ii) What were the results? (1) Parties in power abuse their control over a certain area -> corruption (2) Helped build support for non-partisan ballot (3) Helps explain differences across states (and cities)… b) Nominations and the power of party leaders - i) Primary elections shift power. From whom to whom? Party Leaders to individual voters ii) Control party leaders have varies across types of strategies. iii) Variation in centralization of nominations (Centralized ----- Decentralized) the control party leaders have over nominations varies, Smoke-filled backrooms iv) Centralized -> Decentralized v) Back Room -> Party convention -> Closed primaries (1) Closed Primary’s limit who can vote, but its beneficial who those within said party (2) Open Primary is able to open to more of the population c) Candidate Centered Politics i) What does this mean? (1) Candidate centered politics has shifted parties to a fund raising and consultant role ii) How does it change the role of parties? (1) Voting for people has centered more on the person rather than just the name of the party 4) Party Competition across the 50 states a) What do you observe in the figures in terms of party control of legislatures? i) There are periods where Democrats were primarily chosen and periods where republicans were primarily chosen. Majority rule of 1 party + competition. b) What do you observe or note in terms of party control of governorships? i) Both parties have times in which they were in power c) Party Competition – discussion of Map 6-2 from page 156 i) There are more Modified one party republican states. Map measured by the success at the state level 5) Changing Patterns of Party Competition in Texas a) Overall trends (graphically) – what do you learn i) Texas used to be a One party Democrat state, Independent category cover about 1/3, and Republican category has grown significantly. b) Dominance of the Yellow Dog Democrats i) Reconstruction (1874) to 1960s Texas was a one-party Democratic State. Why? (1) Reconstruction experience – Caused hatred for the Republican party (2) Squashed opposition- opposing parties had difficulty responding to the dominance of the Democrat party (Rules and regulations) (3) Republicans wanted to stay in power, so they manipulated the system in a legal way to cause a disadvantage to other parties. ii) How dominant was the Democratic Party? (1) Many voters would vote for a yellow dog before voting Republican. iii) 1940-1960 conflict and competition within the Democratic party erodes position (1) Problems between candidates (2) Opposing ideas that clash against each other for the sake of the voters vote (3) Starts building a bridge between the two parties way of thinking, c) Beginning of change: The “Shivercrats” i) 1952 & 56 Eisenhower – Many yellow dog Democrats votes for Eisenhower ii) Shivers and others nominated by both parties – group supports candidate d) 2 party competitive politics i) 1961 John Tower – first Republican Senator from Texas (1) Becomes the first Republican to win a state election in Texas – wins election ii) 1978 Republican Bill Clements elected governor – wins election Get to professional order in a couple years ago iii) “Conversion” and election of Phil Gramm (House Of Representative) (1) Sided slightly with the Republican party ( helps out the Republicans -> and eventually becomes the Republican party after his leaked information is found (2) Gets senate seat iv) Parity 1988 – 1994 (1) Competitive two party clashing between this tame e) “Yellow Pup” Republicans? i) Governor George W. Bush (1995 – 2000) (1) Republican party dominance begins (2) Both senate seats are republicans (3) Bush’s popularity gets more Republicans get chosen ii) Republican Dominance (2002……) No opposition (1) The first time Texas that republicans take most of the public offices to f) Does this reflect a change in ideology or political culture in Texas? i) It’s hard to sitringuish between social and media g) Does the move from state dominated by democrats to a state dominated by Republicans mean there has been a change in i) State policy? ii) Political Culture? iii) Ideology among Texas? (1) As they moved further away from reconstruction, the republican style of government became more appealing 6) Third Parties a) Party Competition and Policy: do multiple parties make a difference? i) Unimodal competition – few policy differences (1) Most voters end up near the middle of the graph. Parties will try and aim toward the middle so – they can get more voters The fight for the center ii) Bimodal competition more likely differences in policy (1) Voters are slightly further away from the middle b) Institutional Barriers to Third Parties i) Major parties set ballot thresholds* and registration requirements to discourage third parties. (1) Makes the third party LESS viable (2) More difficult to actually get onto the ballot (3) Most elections in the US are single member district plurality elections ii) Use of SMDP (Single Member District Plurality) (1) How does SMPD hurt minor parties? iii) Minor parties more successful at state and local levels than national level iv) Limited effect of third party challenges in Texas Legislatures (part 2) 6) Do women and minority legislators make a difference? Based on: Thomas, Sue. 1991. “The Impact of Women on State Legislative Policies” Journal of Politics 53(4): 958-976. a) Do women advocate for women’s interests? i) Expect men and women to care about different topics ii) Do more (or fewer) women in the chamber affect women’s (and men’s) priorities and success of passing women’s interest bills? (1) Higher levels female reps => higher level policy priority difference (2) No difference on any other issues (except women, children, family) (3) More women in leg => more success in passing these bills (4) More women in legislature => more women, children, family bills (5) Most women in legislature => passing most women, children, family bills (6) Men focus more on business and economics iii) Patterns of bill introduction (1) Women introduce a lot of games towards than women and children bills (a) Do minority groups support each other’s? (b) Are minority legislature as successful. (c) Woman don’t place any priority on business bills (2) High amount of women introduced and approved bills – woman (3) Woman are causing a more diverse authority in legislature (a) Blacks are nearly not as- b) Is the playing field levels i) Do minority groups support each other’s interests? ii) Are minority legislators as successful iii) Hypotheses (1) AA more “black interest bills”; women more “women interest” (Confirmed) (2) AA and W more education, health care, child welfare, poverty (Confirmed) (3) AA more women interest; women more “black interest” (Confirmed) (4) Women = success of men; AA < white success (Mixed) (5) More likely to vote on things for education, and welfare (6) 3 out of 6 states – AA are more likely to not pass their own legislation iv) Data (1) 3 years (2) Arkansas, Cali, Illinois, Maryland, New Jersey ,and NCU i) Findings b) The intersection of Race and Gender on Policy Reingold, Beth and Adrienne Smith. 2012. “Welfare Policymaking and Intersections of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in US State Legislatures” American Journal of Political Science 56(1): 131-147. i) Measures: (1) Cash benefits (2) Restrictiveness of eligibility (3) Flexibility in imposing work requirements (4) “family cap” (limitation on benefits if child born to mother receiving aid) (5) Domestic violence waivers (a) Multiple factors that involve minorities and woman ii) Results: Intersectional Models (1) Women aren’t the same. This is the same for minorities (2) More women during the benefit (3) More black women in legislature, they are more likely to have preference to welfare and other small issues without iii) Conclusions. 7) The Legislative Process in Texas a) Bill is Introduced i) Any member can introduce ii) 60 day rule in Texas – when bills can be introduced (no restrictions). After the 60 days legislature can be passed, but it has to be marked as emergency by the governor as well as a 4/5 people majority iii) Where do ideas for bills come from? (1) Citizens (2) Legislators (3) Special interests (4) State Agencies (5) Governor b) Bill is sent to committee i) 40 Standing Committees in House; 16 Standing committees in the Senate ii) Representative serve on at least one usually 2-3; Senators typically 3-4. iii) How are committee members appointed (1) House (2) Senate iv) Important committee role is to kill bills (The bill can go to the floor or be “killed” c) Bill goes to floor debate i) Nature of floor debate and process (1) Calendar committee schedules bills for debate (2) Local and non-controversial speed through (3) Can be amended (4) Third reading and then vote ii) Not all bills debated on floor d) Beyond the floor i) If not approved – deadnd ii) If approved sent to 2 chamber iii) Process repeated in 2ndchamber (1) If final versions not identical => conference committee (2) Conference committee report must be approved by both chambers iv) Sent to Governor e) Gubernatorial Action (options given to the Governor) i) Sign It ii) Veto It iii) Allow to become law without signature 8) Some notes on the Texas Legislative Process (aka 6 “Secrets”) a) NOT ALL BILLS ARE INTENDED TO PASS – Some people want to be able to say, “at least I tried” even though they know it won’t be able to be done/passed b) BILLS ARE NOT INDEPENDENT OF EACH OTHER c) BILLS DO NOT RECEIVE EQUAL CONSIDERATION d) FLOOR DISCUSSIONS NOT USED TO DECIDE HOW TO VOTE e) MEMBERS DO NOT KNOW DETAILS OF ALL BILLS f) THERE IS AN END-OF-SESSION LOGJAM BUT NOT A LOGJAM PROBLEM The Bureaucracy 1) What is it i) Why should we care? ii) Defined. (a) Bureaucracy = public agencies and the programs and services they implement and manage (b) Part of the executive branch; overseen by legislature iii) The 5 Key organizational characteristics iv) How is public bureaucracy different from private bureaucracy? 2) Bureaucratic politics i) Public administration is political (1) Determines who gets what ii) Bureaucratic Function #1: Policy Implementer (a) Implementation = take the express wishes of government and translate them into action (b) Powerful shaper of citizen’s lives iii) Bureaucratic Function #2: Policymaker (a) Vagueness gives street-level bureaucrats discretion – Get to choose which rules to enforce. Ex: Police officers (b) Rulemaking = translating laws into written instructions for public agencies (c) Active pursuit of political agendas – strict outlook on certain rules to resolve an urgent issue 3) Who are the bureaucrats? i) The spoils system (a) Founders preferred merit based hiring (b) President Andrew Jackson adopted a spoils system instead. – giving material benefits to those who provided support. Because of this system, those who are appointed by the spoils system don’t care much about the people they are serving. 1. He believed it would promote accountability 2. It led to patronage. – more about rewarding friends, family, neighbors, rather than serving the community. 3. Led to the growth of political machines ii) The merit system (a) Ideally bureaucracies operate with neutral competence- treating everyone fairly and equally (b) Merit system seen as a way to achieve this. (c) Federal bureaucracy shifted to _____merit______ with Pendleton Act- could not be fired being of party affiliation- in 1883. States followed. Some quick and some slow. iii) New Public Management (NPM) (a) Focus on making government more like a business. Emphasize market incentives (b) Mixed results. Government ISN’T a business… (c) Key feature of NPM 1. Emphasizes doing more with less 2. Emphasizes market orientation or privatizing services 3. Seeks to improve customer satisfaction 4. Decentralize decision making power to local bureaucrats 5. Improve capacity to make, implement and manage policy 6. Maintain (or improve) accountability (d) What is the underlying logic? (i) Government should be run as a business (e) What was/is the result? (i) Mixed reviews 4) Efficiency v. Responsiveness: Is it more important that the bureaucracy be responsive or efficient in carrying out its duties? i) In favor of efficiency (merit system) (a) plus competence (b) plus optimal allocation of resources (c) plus neutrality (d) minus red – tape (e) minus lack flexibility (f) minus minimal accountability (g) minus bureaucrats may pursue their interests, not the publics’ – protection of organization instead of public interest ii) In favor of responsiveness (spoils system) (a) plus public policy reflects citizen demands (b) plus bureaucrats aren’t isolated (c) plus political role is explicit (d) minus danger of corruption (e) minus reduction in quality – not getting the best of the best Executives 1) What can the governor do? The power of the office i) Formal powers (a) appointment powers (b) budgetary powers (c) veto powers (d) power to pardon (e) power to call special sessions (f) Why do formal powers vary? ii) Informal Powers (a) popular support (b) party support 1. Divided vs. united (unified) government (c) power to persuade (d) When do the informal powers of the governor change? iii) Formal v. informal powers (a) Key distinction is (i) Both formal and informal powers are necessary for a governor to be successful (ii) Informal powers determine whether a governor is able to exert a strong or weak influence on legislative process (b) which are necessary for success? why? (c) which determines the extent to which they influence legislation? why? iv) Limits (a) Impeachment. Defined: ability of legislature to remove executive branch officials for corruption (criminal acts). Removal based on popularity is a prominent trend. (b) Recall. Defined: occasion for citizens to collect signatures and then vote on the ouster of an incumbent politician before an election. This can be done to any political office. (c) Forced resignation 2) Who becomes governor? i) Have women and members of ethnic/racial minorities won governorships? When? Where? (1) (1974) - women start being elected more, but there’s still only a small amount being elected. Minorities share the same trend. Most Governors are male and white. ii) Considerable prior experience (1) Vast majority held prior office (2) Some US congresspeople leave to run for governor 3) Power of the Governor in Texas i) Formal Powers (a) Limited power 1. much of cabinet is elected 2. limitation on pardons (b) can call special sessions (i) Forces legislature to talk ONLY about the proposal they were called in to talk about. Legislature can also revise the proposal. ii) Recent Governors in Texas – with emphasis on patterns (1) Republican -> Democrat -> Rep -> Demo -> Rep -> Rep -> Rep (2) Alternating pattern, but more Republican recently iii) 2014 Gubernatorial Election iv) Famous and Infamous governors (a) Only 5 Republican governors elected since statehood (b) Lee O’Daniel was not a registered voter when he was elected. Why? Because he refused to pay the poll tax… So he can’t vote. (c) Sam Houston was only governor to have been governor of 2 states (where else?) Tennessee, and to not have been a candidate of a major party (unionist party). Also has 2 other distinctions, what are they? (d) Miriam (Ma) Ferguson – first female governor in 1924 nd (i) 2 female governor in country – Nelly Ross was before he by 15days (inauguration calendar) (ii) Ann Richards 2 ndin Texas (e) James Ferguson – only Texas governor to be impeached 4) Other statewide offices a) Lieutenant Governor (1) Assumes duties if governor cannot (2) Popularly elected by residents of the state (i) Who is the Lieutenant Governor of Texas? Dan Patrick (ii) How are they selected? In Texas separate election. (3) Acts as presiding officer of the Senate (i) Votes to break ties (4) In Texas member of several legislative branch boards b) Secretaries of State (elected in 36 states) (1) Chief custodian of state records (voting records) (a) Monitor elections (2) State’s chief elections officer (3) Texas (i) Constitutionally defined office (ii) Appointed by the governor c) Attorney General (1) Chief legal counsel for the state (2) Power: Render opinions on constitutional of acts (3) Law enforcement powers as well (4) In Texas (i) Popularly elected (ii) most work civil, not criminal law d) Treasurer, Auditor, and Comptroller – can be elected or appointed (1) Treasurer: State’s money manager. Collecting taxes. Paymaster. (2) Auditor: Assures the legislature that expenditures and investment of state funds is being done legally. (3) Comptroller: Ensues prospective expenditures are in accord with the law and do not exceed legislative appropriations. (4) In Texas: (i) Chief tax collector and investor of funds (ii) Does not perform financial audits (iii)Comptroller is a popularly elected office The Bureaucracy 1) What is it i) Why should we care? (1) Pervasive (2) Make important decisions (3) Knowledge needed for evaluation ii) Defined. (a) Bureaucracy = public agencies and the programs and services they implement and manage (b) Part of the executive branch; overseen by legislature – Bureaucracy can still revise legislation that was different from what the legislature wanted – divide that legislature is scared of iii) The 5 Key organizational characteristics (1) Labor is divided by task (2) Hierarchy (3) Formal rules (S.O.P. – standard operating procedures) (4) Keep records (5) Professionalization – can build a career iv) How is public bureaucracy different from private bureaucracy? – (1) Public bureaucracies are just as complex as private (2) Private bureaucracies are more profit driven while public are more driven to benefit the greater good of the people. 2) Bureaucratic politics i) Public administration is political ii) Bureaucratic Function #1: Policy Implementer (a) Implementation = take the express wishes of government and translate them into action (b) Powerful shaper of citizen’s lives iii) Bureaucratic Function #2: Policymaker (a) Vagueness gives street-level bureaucrats discretion (b) Rulemaking = translating laws into written instructions for public agencies (c) Active pursuit of political agendas 3) Who are the bureaucrats? i) The spoils system (a) Founders preferred merit based hiring (b) President Andrew Jackson adopted a spoils system instead. 1. He believed it would promote accountability 2. It led to patronage. ii) The merit system (a) Ideally bureaucracies operate with neutral competence (b) Merit system seen as a way to achieve this. (c) Federal bureaucracy shifted to ___________ with Pendleton Act in 1883. States followed. Some quick and some slow. iii) New Public Management (NPM) (a) Focus on making government more like a business. Emphasize market incentives (b) Mixed results. (c) Key feature of NPM 1. Emphasizes doing more with less 2. Emphasizes market orientation or privatizing services 3. Seeks to improve customer satisfaction 4. Decentralize decision making power to local bureaucrats 5. Improve capacity to make, implement and manage policy 6. Maintain (or improve) accountability (d) What is the underlying logic? (e) What was/is the result? 4) Efficiency v. Responsiveness: Is it more important that the bureaucracy be responsive or efficient in carrying out its duties? i) In favor of efficiency (merit system) (a) plus competence (b) plus optimal allocation of resources (c) plus neutrality (d) minus red – tape (e) minus lack flexibility (f) minus minimal accountability (g) minus bureaucrats may pursue their interests, not the publics’ ii) In favor of responsiveness (spoils system) (a) plus public policy reflects citizen demands (b) plus bureaucrats aren’t isolated (c) plus political role is explicit (d) minus danger of corruption (e) minus reduction in quality Judicial Branch 1) Judicial Independence i) Defined (a) Judicial Independence means free of the influence of other branches of government or individuals. No say from the other branches. (b) This doesn’t mean neutrality. ii) Two sources of judicial independence are: (1) Way judges are selected (2) Term length (a) Longer the term length – the more freedom/power they have 2) Selection and Accountability i) Selection mechanisms (ordered least to most independent)* (a) Elections 1. Partisan Elections 2. Nonpartisan Elections 3. Retention Elections – used when someone else appoints judges. Every few years the judge up for reelection (retention) is put on the ballot and voters get to say whether the judge gets to keep their job or not. (b) Appointment 1. Gubernatorial or Legislative Appointment 2. Merit election – High quality choice ii) Comparing Across the 50 states. (a) What patterns do you see? (i) Some states have stayed the same through the years, while some continue to change periodically 1. Consistency isn’t a requirement Refer to Map 9-1 on page 258 of textbook iii) Accountability vs. independence (a) Selection method affects accountability and independence (b) Founders favored merit because they valued independence (c) Popular elections preserve accountability and responsiveness to public opinion 1. Jacksonian Democrats (1946-1860) (d) However, judicial elections pose risks (i) Justice for Sale (e) Retention elections: compromise or bad idea? (f) Does this mean judicial elections are bad? 3) Importance of State Courts i) Do state courts matter? YES 3 reasons why they matter! (a) They interpret state constitutions (b) define the political and policy landscape. (How?) New Judicial Federalism (what is this?) the increased reliance by state judges on state declarations of rights to secure rights unavailable under the U.S. Constitution (c) ii) State courts are a political actor, despite appearances (a) Discretionary v. mandatory jurisdiction (b) Legislative over-criminalization (c) Selection iii) How judges make law (a) Common law v. statutory law (b) judicial activism v. judicial restraint 4) Problems facing state courts i) Caseloads ii) judicial selection iii) sentencing guidelines Racial Disparity in Punishment / Education Policy 4) Prison Nation iv) Results of crackdown? (a) 1. Overcrowded prison = bad (b) 2. States were forced to put more people than able (c) 3. Releasing people early from sentences (d) 4. Building more prison = tax payers money v) Frequently criticized. Typical problems include: (a) Violence (b) Inadequate mental/physical health care (c) treatment of juveniles 5) Racial disparities in punishment i) Not everyone has an equal chance of being sent to prison – minorities are more likely to go to prison. ii) Causes a political problem (1) Source: http://www.sentencingproject.org iii) Felon disenfranchisement laws (a) What is it? Laws that take away the ability for people in prison to vote (more minorities in prison = less minorities to vote) (b) state laws vary… Sometimes you have to fight to get your right to vote back. (c) Some minorities are charged harsher than others 6) Death Penalty i) Before 1972 about half the states had ii) 1972thupreme Court ruled death penalty could not be used as it violated the 8 amendment (a) Furman v. Georgia iii) Since 1977 Texas has executed more people than any other state (a) Virginia 2 , Florida 3 (b) 11 states have currently outlawed iv) Equal or unequal application? Education 1) What’s at stake for you? i) Education levels affect economic conditions ii) Compulsory public education laws means we all participate in and pay for the education system iii) education may improve/affect quality of democracy 2) Structure and Organization i) Definitions (a) Structure (b) organization ii) State and local government are major players (a) US different from other countries (b) state legislature and state departments of education are main actors (c) substantial influence over policy also concentrate at local (district) level iii) Local education agencies and school boards are key decision makers (a) state departments of education oversee their
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