History 2365: American History to 1877
History 2365: American History to 1877 History 2365
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tyler Varzeas on Sunday August 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 2365 at Baylor University taught by Gerhardt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see History of the United States to 1877 in History at Baylor University.
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Date Created: 08/14/16
History 2365: American History to 1877 23 August 27, 2016 New World Encounters Migration to the Americas Environmental adaptation o Agricultural Revolution Diversity and Complexity o Aztecs o Cahokia o Eastern Woodland Cultures *Population in 1491: 10 to 100 million Native Americans* The different (Native American) groups adapt very well to their surroundings. o Natives in the plains tend to be largely hunters (Bison). o Eastern Woodland cultures move from largely gatherers, to growing crops like corn, beans, and squash. These three crops are known as the “ThreeSisters”. o In huntergatherer groups, woman become the main crop growers and gatherers, while men are hunters. Food is seen as an important responsibility; women are seen as equal because of their role with food. The idea of a few people (farmers) producing food for an entire society allows for more “diverse jobs” to thrive. Eastern Woodland cultures use “slash and burn” technique. Native Americans believed super natural entities existed in everything around them and that it was accessible to them. Ancestry was matrilineal. Women had much more social influence than Europeans at this time. Most of the time, the child’s uncle would fulfill the father role, not the biological father. Native Americans believed that ownership was determined by use. Conditions of Conquest Sea routes to Asia. o European merchants no longer wish to go through Middle Eastern middlemen in order to trade with China. o Portuguese developed relationship with many African Kingdoms. Contact with West Africa. o Origins of the slave trade. o Slavery on Madeira and the Canary Islands. Portuguese limited to western side of Africa due to not being exposed to diseases located on Eastern side. Even though slave trade was very small, the ideas they used about how slavery worked was continued through to the New World. Cultural Negotiations o Most interactions are peaceful between Europeans and Native Americans. o Europeans ethnocentricity leads to disputes and complications between them. o Europeans are baffled by gender roles in Native American cultures. o Protestants attempted to Christianize Native Americans. o Men were more likely to convert to Christianity because of the amount of exposure to Europeans. The Columbian Exchange o Many crops exchanged between European and Americans o European diseases transmitted as well. These diseases become devastating to Native Americans. Approximately 85% of a society would die. Europe on the Eve of Conquest The context of Europe in 1491. o Renaissance leads to scientific discoveries, especially in navigation. Dominance of Spain and Portugal. o Political alliances o Reconquista Ferdinand and Isabella choose to fight war against Muslims in Spain. o Conquistadores Known for ability to seize Muslim land; they used these tactics in the New World. Christopher Columbus sails in 1492 First European to land in Americas, while people are actually paying attention to it.
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