biol 1082 week 1
biol 1082 week 1 BIOL 1082
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Conner on Sunday August 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1082 at University of North Texas taught by Dr. Ruthanns Thompson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Biology for Educators in Biological Sciences at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 08/14/16
Week 1 Notes: Text Book/class Biology is the study of life. Our world is made up of living and nonliving things. In order for something to be considered living it must do all of the following: Acquire energy, reproduce, respond to stimuli, maintain homeostasis (balance), grow and develop and lastly adapt of die. The ways in which life acquires energy is diverse; for instance plants use photosynthesis, humans use cellular respiration or a metabolism in order to get nutrients, and even some organisms that live in depths of the ocean feed off of geothermal gases and energy from vents in the crust. Reproduction can occur through many different ways as humans we must share DNA by fertilization of an egg with sperm in order to create new life, however plants do the same but with the help of bees and their environment in order to spread their pollen (DNA). Homeostasis is the tendency to maintain a stable equilibrium. Adaptions are nature’s way of keeping homeostasis, when something challenges the existence of life, life changes over time in order to combat these challenges. Many of these adaptations occur through a process called natural selection, the organism with stronger traits will survive and pass down the trait and the weaker traits will slowly disappear. Cells are the smallest unit of life. There are single celled organisms as well as multicellular organisms such as plants fungus and animals. As far as we know due to the efforts of science, the Earth is 4.5 billion years old but it wasn’t as hospitable to life as it is now. Life began on this planet about 3.5 billion years ago which means it took a billion years give or take for the conditions of this planet to allow life to start. Organic means that something is living or used to be living. Organic matter has three common elements: Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen. It is in everything even in the food we eat. (C6.H12.O6) also known as glucose is a carbohydrate, the simplest of these carbohydrates are called Monosaccharides. These are the simple sugars that break down so quickly that we cannot burn the energy it produces before it becomes fat in our bodies. Disaccharides are formed when two monosaccharides bond and a water molecule is removed. Lipids are “fats”, oils and waxes that help cells in the body move fast. Proteins are the building blocks of life and if they do not get used they are stored in the body as phospholipids. Steroids never leave the body. On a smaller, more basic level we have molecules which are made up of two or more atoms. Positively and negatively charged atoms are called ions. Reactions resulting in bond occur when an atom’s outer most electron shell is partially full, however if it is empty or completely full the atom is inert and not as likely to become bonded and form a molecule. These bonds can occur in two different ways, one way is called ionic bonding and it occurs when an electron is completely transferred from one atom to another. The second way is covalent bonding and this occurs when two atoms share an electron with each other. Elements cannot be broken down, or converted and the smallest particle of an element is known as an atom. Atoms are the basic structural units of matter, within an atom there are different components that are subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, and electrons.) Protons are the positively charged particles that stay in the nucleus with the neutrons which have a neutral charge, and electrons which are negatively charged orbit around the nucleus constantly. There are 92 elements found only in nature, however scientists have created many new elements.
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