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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Pooja Dave on Monday March 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY110 at University of Miami taught by Professor Gillis in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 03/23/15
Chapter 2 Notes Psychology 0 Statistics two branches 0 Descriptive statistics present data in easy to understand way Measure of central tendency Mean xbar median mode Measure of variability spread Range standard deviation S variance Z score 0 X xbar S 0 Makes it easier to compare average vs yourself The normal curve and z scores 0 Bell shaped center is median mode mean 0 Y axis frequency 6895985 1 S away ZS away 35 away 34142 for one side of the bell graph percentage Correlation coef cient Pearson39s r Direction and magnitude correlating variables 0 1 Graphs Bar graphs histograms line graphs Data tables 0 lnferential uses probability theory to make judgments or inferences about reality Z test normal curve T test F test or ANOVA Regression Chi square or xquot2 0 These tests allow us to determine if obtained results are significant reliable consistent Can be replicated and has real effect Chapter 1 Notes Psychology 0 Psychology is the scienti c study of mind and behavior follows the scienti c method 0 Mind is product of the organ brain personality memories feelings you 0 Six approaches to psychology 0 Psychoanalytic Freud O O Conscious vs unconscious mind Id and Ego Psychosexual behavior Before him people were thought to be rational beings thinking shapes behavior We aren39t rational we act then think Problems now are a result of early childhood unconscious memories Behavioral Watson Skinner Build science based on behaviors observe directly You don39t know what person hopes for or dreams or thinks Focus on behavior dif cult to measure ideas Gestalt Kohler Wertheimer Around WW2 the whole is more than the sum of its parts The experience is more than the individual components We can study the elements of the two lights ickering but the experience is the motion of the light Experience cannot be understood by studying the components Looks at whole person clothes makeup words Humanistic Maslow Rogers Every person is motivated to reach their full potential Every child will reach selfactualization except for trauma negative interactions by important people or reality Motivate person Cognitive Thinking memory language problem solving creativity Biological medical physiological Study brains neurons neurotransmitters Fields of specialization 0 Human services Clinical major illnesses counseling everyday problems community school 0 Applied Educational forensic sports industrial organizational health engineering 0 Experimental basic Social personality cognitive developmental physiological medical biological History of psychology 0 Charles Darwin 1858 origin of species Natural selection those who survive reproduce and pass on the traits Relies on variation among animals to begin with There is differences between people 0 Sir Francis Galton 1884 anthropometric lab measures human characteristics Showed that there were traits that ran in families Closer you are genetically then the more similar your traits are 0 Wilhelm Wundt Titchener 1893 First scienti c laboratory of psychology 1879 lntrospection taught people to look within 0 Not widely used today the very act of studying myself will change how I act not objective When psychology started scienti cally Titchener rst American psychologist School of Structuralism study different senses to nd human consciousness 0 William James 1890 most famous American psychologistphilosopher Principles of Psychology Stream of consciousness changes School of Functionalism disagreed with Structuralism more important to know why evolution picked those functions why did we evolve consciousness o Sigmund Freud 1900 in Germany and Austria neurologist Psychoanalytic theory people are not rational Interpretation of dreams 0 Ivan Pavlov 19205 Physiologist studying digestion in dogs when he found behavior Association with time or humans classical training learning theory 0 John Watson 1913 19205 School of Behaviorism observe dogs behavior 0 Ethical issues 0 Institutional review boards IRB regulated by govt If you have human participants must submit research to IRB minimize risk to participants Informed consent must be given options participants must give consent Right to privacy any information gained is con dential Debrie ng after then participants can ask why Record keeping have to have records in case there s an audit 0 Animal research regulation 0 Overview of scienti c method 0 Observation research hypothesis experiment feedback 0 Francis Bacon stated it but it goes back past Aristotle CO 000 Theory a tentative way of explaining the way things work never proven goal is advance understanding within that particular eld motivates people Hypothesis proposition based on theory falsi able discon rmable 0 True Experiment vs Correlational Method 0 0 True Experiment Randomly divide subjects manipulate independent variable measure dependent variable test if difference is signi cant Correlational method measure two variables cacuate relationship 1 support for hypothesis but cannot infer causality may have lingering variableNN Correlation does not imply causation Chapter 3 Notes Psychology 0 Overview of the Nervous System 0 Nervous System Peripheral and Central PNS all throughout the body Somatic voluntary Autonomic selfregulating Sympathetic exciting arousing and Parasympathetic calming CNS brain and spinal cord 0 The Neuron 0 Typical neuron cell body soma with dendrites receive information axon with myelin sheath protects the signal from the environment terminal bers with terminal button synaptic terminal 0 Synapse microscopic space between end of a neuron and beginning of another 0 Neurotransmitters are used to deliver an electrical impulse to another cell bind with receptors in the next cell Acetylcholine Norepinephrine Dopamine Serotonin Gamma aminobutyric acid GABA 0 Lock and key analogy round ball ts round receptor 0 lnactivate neurotransmitter after the storage vesicle has released them reuptake of pieces by primary axon then synthesis of more neurotransmitter o SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor used for depression 0 Neuromodulator Natural opioids endorphins Produced by a gland and entered into bloodstream The Brain 0 Imaging Techniques CAT or CT PET MRI and FMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging Lesions stimulation and recording EKG Allowed us to determine left and right brain uses different parts of brain uses 0 Overview of brain Cerebral cortex cerebrum neocortex left and right hemispheres Majority of brain cerebral cortex divided into left and right hemispheres Cerebrum also the cerebral cortex Neocortex new cortex last part to evolve Corpus callosum 0 Bundle of nerves that connects the left and right hemisphere Contralateral connection 0 Right controls left left controls right 0 Vision is contralateral Cerebellum Sticks out in the bottom left and right hemisphere coordination o the cerebral cortex four lobes of the cerebral cortex frontal lobe 0 back part movement temporal lobe 0 hearing parietal lobe 0 body sensations sensory cortex auditory cortex occipital lobe o vision cerebral cortex Broca39s area in left frontal lobe speech production 0 Broca39s aphasia us Following stroke loss of speech Wernicke39s area in left temporal lobe language comprehension o If you cannot comprehend you cannot produce 0 Wernicke39s aphasia loss of comprehension Primary Visual Cortex PVC 0 Occipital lobe vision 0 Looking down the center of left and right hemisphere 0 Geography of visual eld is being retained in the PVC Everything being seen in visual eld is PVC 0 Visual Association Cortex VAC 0 Occipital lobe visual comprehension 0 Visual agnosia could see but not understand 0 Looking down outside PVC 0 Left lobe right eye right lobe left eye 0 Central Fissure 0 Motor and sensory regions 0 Back part of frontal lobe front of parietal lobe o More than half face and mouth with tongue and throat For communication control facial expression Brain plasticity o The ability to learn actions for one part of the brain using a different area of the brain Split brain and lateralization Left hemisphere analytic behavior analysis verbal activity science math reading writing speech talking understanding Right synthesis putting elements together perceive whole maps 3D sketch seeing the whole see pattern and act Chapter 4 Notes Psychology 0 Visual Perception of form 0 Figure ground Discrimination between gure and background of the gure MC Escher play on gure and background 0 lllusory contours Lines or boundaries that do not exist may see it but don39t really exist 0 Grouping of elements Gestalt laws of grouping visual Law of proximity objects that are close together are perceived as belonging together Law of similarity Similar objects are grouped together Law of good continuity We see an image in a way that makes the most continuous sense Law of closure 0 Connect the dots to make the simplest image Law of common fate The objects that move together are perceived as belonging together 0 Depth perception o Binocular cues requires 2 eyes Binocular disparity Leads to stereopsis in the brain 0 Two eyes that are seeing things a little different Fusing two images that are fused into one Convergence When you are looking at something in the distance eyes are relaxed but looking at something closer and closer your eyes converge and it becomes unconformable o Monocular cues works well with 1 eye Motion parallax relative motion 0 Even with one eye you can get depth by moving 0 Further something is away from you the more it seems to move slowly Elevation above horizon h Closer to horizon line farther away 0 Higher above horizon closer lnterposition overlap If one object is blocking another the one object is closer Linear perspective 0 Two parallel lines appear to converge in the distance vanishing point Aerial perspective Farther away color is lighter hazier Relative brightness Color is brighter and lighter the farther the object is Texture gradient Hazier the further the object is 0 Individual are closer collection is further getting smaller in distance Shading Darker and more shadows further away give depth Perceptual constancy 0 Size constancy Bigger something is the closer it is thought to be 0 Shape constancy The shape of the door rectangle remains the same even If it is at an angle 0 Brightness constancy No matter what the light conditions are we can still perceive the color white or various shades of grey Other issues in perception 0 Top down processing Visual processing of data see the whole thing and only if necessary do we see the elements Roll of context the context automatically makes us place the intended word in the misspelled place 0 Bottom up processing From the elements we see the whole 0 Attention o Dichotic listening shadowing one ear means that the other ear seemingly hears nothing not paying attention to other ear some kind of lter aows certain words through Names and vulgar words can get through 0 Attention gives us human consciousness focus
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