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His 101-Entire Course of Notes

by: Emily Riggs

His 101-Entire Course of Notes his 101

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Emily Riggs


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These notes cover the entire semester of His 101- along with what should be paid special attention to on quizzes and exams
World Civilizations 1
Proff. Eagan
Class Notes
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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Riggs on Sunday August 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to his 101 at Thomas More College taught by Proff. Eagan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations 1 in History at Thomas More College.


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Date Created: 08/14/16
The Phoenicians  Would flank their merchant ships with military ships  Distinct separation in military and merchant ships  Most ancient form of the alphabet- first one  Alphabet unified the people of Phoenicia  Would export much more than they would import  One letter > One sound= Phonics  Made everything faster and easier  Alphabet = alpha + beta The Persian Empire-pg. 50  Modern Iran  Persepolis-capital  Bigger than the roman empire  Learn mostly from the Greeks Cyrus the great- one that unified the empire-580-529 B.C.E.  Richest family around because they control the area  Controlled by force  Conception of govt. provide blue print for later imperial rule  Pays his military  Unlike Egypt and Mesopotamia there was no forced assimilation  Cosmopolitan mentality- sees the culture through their eyes  Had religious and cultural tolerance Bring the sources book 2-7 page 45 - What’s happening?  Man bringing tribute to the king Royal road  Paved road  Connected all the cities of Persia o Got to trade much easier o Protection of the Persians o All he asked for was money and men for the army  Extended over 1500 miles  inns every 18 miles  Had watchmen to protect the road Cyrus laid the foundation, Darrius built it from that  Darius also believed in paying for the labor that he used Darrius built a large canal 130 miles long from red sea to Nile river  Took 7 years to complete  Opens up trade and make a ton more money this way Persepolis  Wall 60 feet high and 30 feet thick  Looked like a giant tent city  Little pegs on slide 16 were columns with large Cyprus roofs Persian Government King Cyrus leaders of the city (appointed by cyrus) tax collectors (30 or so) military/ police (50 or so) Greece-Chapter 5 Page 126- look at the terms by Monday Terms  polis-  hoplites- heavily armed citizens who served as infantrymen and who fought to defend the city  democracy  oligarchy  tyranny  Delian league  Mystery religions  Epicureanism  stoicism Sources Text:5-4: Aristotle,5-5: Sparta,5-6: Zeus Pages 106-121 What makes Greek culture different from the other cultures we’ve looked at?  Have very advanced engineering  Wrote their stories down  Polis  Cities would belong to the city thy were in- CITIZENSHIP  DEMOCRACY  Were able to rebel against the Persians with lots of help- no one else could  Banned together instead of fighting individually  Cared about the arts  Gay=okay  Priest held little power- church and state  No bible  Had things that unified the country - “Olympics”  Illness wasn’t caused by spirits or smells but by the body  Philosophy was big- thinking about thinking was a thing?  Cities were united under one ruler, unlike Persia had to follow all rules  Geography How are they alike?  Polytheistic  War was common  had a monarchy in beginning  writing was not widespread  city-states- walled cities  women were still second class  tyranny/monarchy  slavery was common  city-states would fight each other  traded heavily  colonized 2 Hellas: the land of the Greeks pg. 104 map Athens and Sparta (west of Athens) Aegean Sea How did the geography divide the land into so many diverse communities in such a small area? One word > Fragmentation  Plato- “like frogs around a pond” >Aegean Sea  Land of fertile planes and mountains  Relatively very small area for this much cultural diversity Diversity in geography= Diversity in cultures  Commonalities language and religion 3  Differences Always cities of particular city-state first The Dark Ages  Homer-“the blind poet” 700-800 BCE o Collection of oral stories that were written down by one man/woman?  The Iliad and the odyssey give us their religion o Most western civilization is built on the Homeric(Greek) view o Earth was the only thing in the universe- the we are it mentality o Gods interact with humans and humans interact with gods The Gods- The Olympian Twelve  Stratified polytheism no true theology o mostly anthropomorphic very active in the drama of the daily life  from the titans to the Olympian gods o Kronos father of Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades  Kronos would eat his children, Zeus was the only one he didn’t eat, Zeus defeats his father and he expels all the children that he had eaten (kronos was mt. Olympus when it erupted that’s why all the gods live there)  Zeus is the final decision maker on earth o Hera  Athena- goddess of wisdom and skill (Athens)  Apollo- god of light music and oracles (Sparta)  Poseidon is the god of the sea-very powerful because the sea was so big in Greek life 4  Not judges of morality or the afterlife o Human being have an unalterable fate  Free will comes in our response to this fate- hubris-prideful  In Greece the worst thing you could do was be prideful and disrespect the gods  This lesson is learned by Odysseus in the odyssey  Odysseus calls to Poseidon to finds out what he wants, wants him to become humble and respect the gods  Gods must be obeyed or else  Wen Greeks go to war they pray to Ares- god of war  Athena-wisdom, sometimes an owl  Dionysus- god of wine- drink until you passed out  Aphrodite- goddess of love  Read sources 5-5 The Peculiar Spartans  Admired  Very dedicated  Different-combed hair before battle  Will always fight whoever- fight until the death  Come back with your shield or on it- victorious or dead  Tactics were kind of crazy  One of the greatest military states in human history  Ideal of order and discipline  No internal city conflict 5 o Would sacrifice their own good for the better of the city  Geography and environment promoted isolation  The lycurgan regimen-must earn your citizenship o Had to make it through the trials  Inly pure blooded Spartans could be in the closed society o Only about 10,000 o How did they run the city with this few of people?  With slavery, conquered a city and took their men as slaves  Typically the Messenia’s  The Agoge- lifelong training system for pureblood Spartan men o 60 guys over 60-Gerousia o Any birth defect meant you were going to be taken to the top of a mountain and thrown off o Ages 1-5 if you showed any problems you were left on the mountain o Men and Women o 1-5 lived with mothers o age 5 they were taken and put in “school” o Training included games everyday testing survival and pain tolerance o Males-Education stopped at 12, were tagught to read and write and that’s it o Femals- taught to read the classics and how to sing, gymnastics o Goal?- produce good soldiers  They looked different because of the breeding o Taller, stronger o Women were hopefully blonde 6  If a man got in Sparta they were flanked by 2 guards so they didn’t mess around o If they looked at the women they were killed  at 12 the boys entered a relationship with 30+ men  typical solider had a spear, shield, and a short knife  triangle formation  50ish across and 8 deep The rise of the polis th  Until the 8 century. BCE the dominate form was monarchy  Or an aristocratic oligarchy o Always devolve into a tyranny o Pages 107, 108, 109  Needed a new type of government  There were many but we see 2 o Democracy o Tyranny  ATHENS VS SPARTA o Cities would take sides 7 Chapter 6- pg. 130 Rome  Sources-6.1 12 tables o Discussion Wednesday-Oct. 14 o Which law do you find most interesting?  Cant use dreadfully deformed child, 4.1?  Need to know the chronology- Rome and Greece were founded around the same time  The Roman Republic Experiment  Republican Rome o The shaping power of Italian geography  Mountains-(alps in the north, Apennines throughout)  Wonderfully fertile lowland valley regions, including Rome  Rich agricultural productions o Tiber riverall lines of communication converge on this place  The city of Rome was a natural born leader of the region o Keep Rome’s proximity to Greece in mind  Clearly affected in all areas (Social, Political, Economy) by Hellenistic culture  GRECO-ROMAN culture o Other cultures also blend into make Roman culture  Especially the ETRUSCANS page 130  The northern Latin’s come to dominate the area, language  Romans became the most warlike culture well look at conquer or be conquered  Coliseum was built with Jewish labor, as well as most of the other things built o Would conquer a land and take their men  Mythical founding of Rome o Romulus and Remus  753B.C.E.  mean king, his daughter is visited by Mars (God of War), king throws them into the tibris, and rescued by a she wolf, protects and raises them until a farmer finds them, they go to Rome and kill the king, build two cities, remis pokes at Romulus and jumps over his wall Romulus gets mad and kills remis  The founders of the “Res Publica” o The republican Rome is a very idealistic place  The virtue of Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus was central to Rome  Romans tried to model themselves after him  Leads the roman people to victory and hands Rome back to the people  Power is “res publica”  in the public realm  Power is not privately held y the government or king  not right  The gov. ideally rules according to people’s wishes  The source of the power is the people o S.P.Q.R Senatus Populusque Romanus The senate and the people of Rome are together Etruscans o Didn’t speak Latin o In Italy as early 4-3000 bce o Women had an elevated status o Rome based their society off of them  The roman social system o Society: Conservative, Hierarchical, Paternalistic  The fundamental governing structure of paterfamilias-pg 136 is central  Oldest male in the family runs the family o If he wants to kill his child, he can  Blended aspects of monarchy, oligarchy, and democracy o The Consuls and the Censors-pg. 131  Elected by the government  Would decide almost everything in Rome  Patricians: ran the government  the senate (300 wealthiest) (elected at birth and served for life) (assembly of peoples reps) like the Kennedys or the bush’s  Control: Govt. offices, priesthood, military commands/appointments  Do not work with their hands- live from land-wealth & access to slave labor  Plebeians: those who “worked with their hands”  Mostly “locked out" group Soldiers, small land holder, merchants  Slaves: the concept of race in the classical world  Lowest class in Rome; publically and privately held; where did they come from? o People conquered in war o People who went into debt- could work for their freedom o Wanted to be a private slave o Government slaves were at risk of death on an daily basis  Many slaves signed contracts so that they earn freedom through service RACE IS A MODERN CONCEPT, ANCIENT WORLD DIDN’T SEE RACE  The Patrician – Plebeian Compromises o An ongoing social conflict throughout roman history o Often called: The Struggle of the Orders o The twelve tables(450 BCE) 1 written roman law o Over time, the plebeians continually strike  Roman religious and cultural beliefs o Characteristics: polytheistic, anthropomorphic  Head roman gods: Jupiter (Zeus), Mars (Ares), Neptune (Poseidon)  The state gods require by law public worship on certain days  Dozens of others and added foreign gods very diverse; cults abound  Like clubs today  Contractual and very ritualistic (connection to the roman catholic church) o Relatively tolerant and individualistic  allowed almost any religious belief as long as it didn’t compete with ROME o The cult of Roma  the belief in their culture SUPERIORORITY o The closest thing we get in the classical new world is NATIONALISM  The Punic Wars (264-146 BCE) o The conflict with carthage over Sicily- pg 135 o Century long warfare for control of vital Mediterranean shipping lanes o 216 BCE general Hannibal barca crosses the alps; destroys the legions at canae and devastates the roman countryside for the next decade o about 70,000 men died in this war  not seen again until WWI o roman general scipio africanus changes the stratagey  attack carthage instead of just hanibal o in 202 BCE, Hanibal is defeated by scipio africanus  carthage is severely punished the example to others? o The Roman empire expands throughout the Mediterranean  The coming of the “Empire” o Roman law: only landowners could serve in legion (fight in the army)  The growing necessity to conquer for riches, taxable land and slaves to fund the roman state causes rome to push for more control of Mediterranean  Stated to partition the land off to generals and put them in charge 2 o Triumvirate system replaces the senate  Julius Caesar wins civilwar amongst generals and declares himself “Dictator Perptuus’  Many reforms make him popular  spends lavishly on people ;extends citizenship; colonization and conquering th  Too popular??? Assassinated march 15 44 BCE by those loyal to the republic o Seatorial plot against him led by brutus (including Cicero; page 140-141 of the text)  Left his estate to his young nephew Octavian  Left his legions to his best general Marc Antony o Obvious recipe for further civil war  Battle of Actium (Greece) in 31 BCE map on 142  Octavian’s forces destroy the combined forces of Marc Antony and Cleopatra o Octavian is hailed as the “Bringer of Peace”  Octavian changes his name the Cesar Augustus- Cesar the great  Family-Soap opera of epic proportions  Types of propaganda  Young- always even in his 60s  Always pictured with cupid, god of youth  In army outfit- bringer of piece  Traditional cloak, what the senators would wear o Combined the senate and the army into one o What would you do to not get stabbed?  Cant appear too powerful  Don’t take their freedoms away  Get some bodyguards  Praetorian o Roman version of the navy seals o Paid handsomely  Give people some stuff  Food  Entertainment  Pass laws that people agree with but def the senate People will give a lot of freedoms for a little security If you are defeated in battle, then you must commit suicide  Cesar pardons the senators that fought against him o Senators hate Cesar because he pardoned them and thus humiliated them in front of everyone  Pox Romana o “Ad Hoc” o “eminent domain” was used very frequently o the quality of life was a big belief- life was good for most citizens  not seen again until the 1800s  The reforms of Caesar Augustus o Sealed with the power of populist propaganda; the mob o Visual propaganda  Very Important; largely illiterate population 8.5/10 cant read  Always portrayed god like, youthful apperence 3  NEVER display your POWER or WEALTH  Constant visible displays of rebublcan traditions; “everthing is as it was”  No divorce- first law passed o Political  powerful beauracracy orchestrated from the top  All rise to powerful posititions based ont hre level of loyalty to him  “adoption” instead of heredity  Chooses BEST FIT to rule  Tiberius o Economic  Spend lavishly on the people of rome  Reformed tax codes to lessen the burden on plebeians fixed on grain, bread, etc.  Vast building projects; games for popular amusement  Baths  Roads  Cities  Roman roads  Key to the empire o Needed for military transport, facilitated trade and unified the expanding, diverse roman territories into a sense of community and belonging the “The Cult of Roma”  Pitched for drainage of water  Left there for 2000 years and still there  50,000 miles of paved roads Augustus is the builder of the way rome operates Roman Architecture  Roman baths: a staple of life in the pax romana o About 3-4/week o When Augustus came to power there were 20, when he left there were over 100 o Day in the life  Up with the sun  Would eat leftover from night before o In cellar  Went to work  Lasts from about 7-2/3 in afternoon  Or school  Math  Literature  Rhetoric o VERY IMPORTANT!!!!  Around 2 when done with work you go to the bath houses  Female and male sides o Males would go in and bathe and then exercise  Mostly wrestling  Had weights to lift as well 4  When done you go to the bath with your bathing tools  Jar-oils  Strigils-scraped the oil off their body  Then you go to the “plucker”  When your hair was removed and you were clean then you could enter the hot baths and the cool baths  Patrician and plebian baths  Then you go home and eat dinner-“cena”  At least 6 courses  Then you pick you teeth  The quills of a porcupine  The model roman citizens o Not at overweight population o Didn’t eat a lot o Focused on working out  Typical roman house would have an impluvium o To keep the feet clean  Mores maurum  Shrines in the home o Ancestor worship  Typical roman room decoration o Walls painted with reliefs from the city  Looked like you were walking around the city  The Julio claudian dynasty o SUPER WEIRD o Like a little soap opera o Caligula  Very odd kid  Played war games with his slaves  Actually had them KILL each other o Claudius  Sickly and weak- thought by the senate  Had the senate members who killed Caligula killed o Nero  has an odd relationship with his mother  He has his mother killed  Almost like a lovers quarrel  64- half of Rome caught fire  when the fire was done he made a huge palace for himself  had a HUGE gold sculpture right in the middle of it  would go to dying senator and make them leave him their money  killed himself after the senate claimed him a public enemy  fails to name a successor  The era of “Good Emperors” (69-180 BCE) o Vespasian-(70-79 ce)  built the coliseum  ANTI-NERO  He was a mans man  Wore normal clothing 5  Got famous by destroying the jews in the 60’s  Tears the temple down  Then named emperor  Build the ultimate entertainment venue  Spends lavishly on making things for the people  Built the coliseum over the home of nero  People needed an outlet for their frustration o In only 8 years the coliseum was 150 feet tall  Used very solid limestone on bottom then lighter materials on top  The romans had no respect for life-at least not like today  Interior of the Coliseum o Would sometimes fill the bottom with water and have naval battles o Had events all through the day  Gladiator figurines o Found in many graves  Triumphal arches o Boasts conquests of the latest battle  Where does the pax romana go??(180-476) o Politically/ economically/ military  POOR LEADRESHIP  Money is spent haphazardly; infrastructure not being maintained  Aqueducts; roads, people o Between 235 and 284 there were over 50 emperors assassinated or deposed- 50 years - 50 emperors o The terrible 200’s  invasion , disease and even climate change o Failure of the borders – rome deluged w/ refugees fleeing from across the danube o The Danube river  Division or rome and the “weird culture” next to them  Bararoi(Greek) -don’t look like me or speak like me  Barbarians o Climate change  In the 200, 300, and 400s get a little cooler  Causes crops to not be able to produce o Whats causes the Germanic influx into rome?  THE HUNS  They would drink the blood from their horses to get across the Russian planes  Pushes many groups into different places  Romans realize that theres too many to fight  Pay the barbarians to protects the borders  federatis  creates a dual problem o 1. Military – army cant conquerno money no slave labor  MOST IMPORTANT REASON ROME FALLS  ROEM HAS REACHED ITS MAX CAPACITY o 2.Economic- what does every government need to survive? Taxes Rise  economic inevitability of inflation  barter economy develops as trust in money falls in kind rather than coin 6  patricians create huge estates buying up the only things that always keeps it value- LAND  Origin and rise of Christianity o Comes from Judea  Roman providence o Seen as a rebellion against the roman values  Monotheistic where as Rome is polytheistic o Jesus of Nazareth (c. 6 BCE- 29 CE) o Teachings arise out of the Jewish historical context o The romans and the messiah-page 149 o Jesus teachings confront both Jewish and roman religious POWER o No primary sources from Jesus himself  Only gospels o About 150 other people were saying that they were the son of god as well  What makes him different?  Viewed as a “disturber of the peace” and crucified o Brutal form of capital punishment meant to humiliate o Jesus of Nazareth’s deaths went largely unnoticed Primary sources  Nothing written for a couple years later  Christos followers  Never written by Jesus only his followers o He left no primary sources behind  Pontius piolets goal was to make sure  Pivotal belief of Christianity is Jesus as the messiah  Christians  Slow but steady growth  The message is peculiar because the leader was a criminal  It is easy to learn; simple to practice; promises a better life  Followers are poor; disenfranchised; viewed with scorn  Special place in the system for women o Absolutely crazy to the romans  Only religion that would willing accept death  Christian video o Avg thought Christians were, insestual, cannibals, they drown people o St Cecilia ha da safe house where the groips could gather in peace o Most of the converts were women because it was a way they could preserve their families o Anyone could join with no fees o Encourage people to be nice and care for others 7 o Christians were so in to healthcare that the Christians lived longer  Christians keep things simple6-6 plithy accepted the Christians in a way, said they shouldn’t be hunted but if brought to the attention then they should be punished o if the renounce their beliefs they will be acquitted  6-5 o anti roman?  3  4  5  7  11  21  39  Missionaries and Early Christian Converts o Paul of Tarsus-(3-67 CE) his life as symbolic example  Born Saul and Jewish  Persecutes Christians for the early parts of his life  Built churchestight rdit social groups; meeting in homes  St. Cecilia in 3 century Rome built a church in her home  The role played by women in the early church cannot be overstated o Very eager to convert people o Revealed religion  God has pulled back the curtain of truth and showing truth to a few people in this world-profits o Important also in the manner of his death Martyr  Martyrdom is a central feature to Christianity’s attractiveness  Sstnaled the end of roman religious toleration of Christians  1 massive persecution took place in 64 CE under Nero  The roman empire on life support o Diocletian (284-305) split empire into east and west o Believed Rome was too large to rule for one man  MAP ON PAGE 151 o Further subdivided into districts of mini rulers  Diocese o Rules with an iron fist; fixes prices and wages  Decreases taxation could now be paid with goods and services  Compulsory services edictpg 152 o Every person involved in growing, distributing or anything with food that’s what you will be your entire life and your son and so on and so forth o Enforces morality and traditional roman values  The great persecution of the Christian beginning in 303  Christians almost die at this point o Retires instead of dying in office o Tyrant/DICK  Constantine and Roman Catholic Christianity o Constantine’s victory at milvian bridge in 312 o o Pray to the heavens fro any god to help them and then he saw a sign in the sky  “In this sign, you will conquer” the chi-rho 8  this is a very common conversion story o immediately makes Christianity legal in Rome when he becomes empower o edict of milan-313- legalized Christianity, govt toleration o waits until the end of his life to get baptized so he doesn’t violate the values o council of nicea-325-the Nicene “creed” affirms the trinity as the belief of the roman Catholicism  condemns the many other versions of Christian beliefs and formally breaks with Judaism o in 380 emperor Theodosius decrees roman catholic Christianity the official religion of the empire; other religious OUTLAWED IN LESS THAN 100 YEARS IT GOES FROM BEING PROSECUTED TO BEING THE ONLY LEGAL RELIGION  After 380 the christians wreck the world by doing exactly what was happening to them while they were being prosecuted  Constantine o Moved the capital of roman empire to Byzantium  Changes name to Constantinople  Awareness that the future of rome was in the east the west was abandoned to the invading Germanic tribes o The political power structure in west now falls apart and will not be rebuilt until the 800’s o Social and cultural power in the west was now controlled by the growing power of the roman catholic church o 410 the visigoths under their warlord king Alaric become the first Germanic tribe to successfully invade rome o byzantine=eastern roman empire The dark ages have arrived  the rise of the byzantine east o foundation  greek city of Byzantium Constantinople  from 330 until its fall to the Muslim Turks in 1453, the empire is in many ways the continuation of the roman empire(in the east)  the byzantine empire speaks greek and it is Christian  but they refer to tehemselves “romani” o the city of Constantinople  wonderfully strategic location(on the tip of eurpoe)  massive triple walls constructed early on to combat sea-inasions  huge aqueducts and cisterns to provide water during a seige  understanding of seige warfare 9 The Cultures of East Asia The Cradle of Contemplation Document 4-3The Analects  How do we rightly govern people? Page 83 has a decent map  Chinese Political Philosophy: The mandate of heaven (1000- 200 BCE) o Book of documents (page 85 of main text and 73 of sources)  Describe the battle for legitimacy within a dysfunctional Chinese culture plagued by civil war o The book of documents describes the mandate of heaven- pg. 86 o Laws would work because they were right and just not because they were strict o True authority is vested in the ancient human ancestors  The ancestors (pure virtue) bestow the ruling power onto the most virtuous and moral family o Constant competition between families to achieve power o Yin and Yang was the competition between the good and bad in people and government o Previous dynasties had ruled cruelly Dishonored the virtuous Ancestors  And thus, power was stripped from them  Confucianism o Master K’ung fy-tzu (Confucius) (ca 551-479BCE)  Travels extensively throughout the dysfunctional Zhou state  ANALECTS Confucian teaching =s written down by his students  Pages 76-79 of sources  System of tangible actions that will immediately benefit society  Humanistic (Ren page 94) not focused on abstract things o “How can we speculate about serving gods when we cannot yet serve man”  the family is a microcosm (mini example) of F a t state e h m p Mother or r officials CHildren citizens  very optimistic/idealistic abut human nature society can be reformed most popular religion in china is Buddhism  Legalism and Confucianism will battle for control of the hearts and minds of china o Han fei (ca 280-233bce) o Pessimistic about human nature  Many laws to keep the family pure  Humans are born selfish creatures and need harsh laws  It is human nature to dislike punishment  Severe laws=good moral society  Strict law coerces people to work hard and sacrifice o War is the primary means of consolidating power and the surest way to preserve that power o DAOTHE WAY- all agree on the fact that the way is lost  Sun-Tzu and the art of war o Disputed origin: 4 or 5 c BCE o Wrote the art of war, one of the oldest and most successful books of military strategy ever composed o The title displays the importance of warfare to the emerging legalist theorists\- who will win victory o Loyalty, bravery and other idealistic Confucian traits are scorned for realistic strategy for the battlefield o Do you believe people are born good, bad or as “blank slates”?  Blank slates o What is your favorite quote from the art of war?  One defends when his strength is inadequate, he attacks when it is abundant- knowing yourself and know what and when you can do things o Legalism wins  Ch’in  Qin Unification (221-206 BCE)  Used intense warfare and legalistic policies to unite china  Shi huangi 259-210BCE ”The First Emperor” o Banished Him Mother and had him mother and step-brothers killed o Has all the bad records of himself destroyed  Two great primary sources are left from this era speaking to the level of power held by Shi Huangdi and the legalist: o The great wall of china-begun under shi huangdi  Hundreds of thousands forced labor on massive “rammed” earth project  Aspects of enemy- separates the enemy from china  Aspects of legalism-thousands of china men are sacrificed to build the wall  Known as the wall of the dead  Much ore of a psychological border rather than a physical one  Xenophobia mentality-relation to modernity? Deep fear of the outsider impacting their culture  Still doesn’t really like “western culture”  1/5 of Chinas population worked on the wall  250,000 probably died while building the wall  Legalism is extremely collective ideology o Extremely regulatory and invasive  Everyone who doesn’t look like us is the enemy  Legalism doesn’t work because its too crazy, people die all the time  Absolutely massive above and underground complex comparable to the Egyptian pyramids o Had about 10,000 terracotta solider buried with him o Each one was individual o Life size o Great source for historians  Know they used horse  Chariots  Tightly woven leather  Have branches of service  Different uniforms for branches  Weapons  Han dynasty o Liu Bang (202-195 BCE) o Removes strict legalist laws, reduces taxes=prosperity o Extend the great wall to the west in order to closely guard the trade routes and monitor the citizens o Han dynasty captures all western trade routes going out of china o The is known as the silk road page 164  Opens the door the cultural interaction  Buddhism begins to spread into china  Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BCE)-page 71 o Born in north east India in Nepal o Raised in great luxury o At 29 rejects the luxury he was born into  Monasticism o What is the fundamental cause of all suffering?  Human desire-selfishness  Sat in meditation and reached nirvana  Page 67 o Becomes known as the enlightened One-Buddha  By following the laws, you too, could reach nirvana o Nirvana-peak enlighten, released from reincarnation  The Four Noble truths-page 67 1. There is suffering in the world. To live is to suffer. 2. The cause of suffering is desire and human attachment 3. Humans can meditate, understand and overcome these weaknesses to out condition 4. To reach nirvana, one must follow the eightfold path.  The union with the ultimate spiritual reality  Escape from the cycle of death and rebirth  The spread of Buddhism- page 168 o Buddhism path through central Asia o The appea and impact of Buddhism in china  Monastic establishment  Gender opportunities  Many more freedoms than the other religions  Does not attack the existing social orderthe reason it spreads!!! The Origin and Rise of Islam and Muslim Culture  Mecca is the main city of Islam (kind of like the New York city)-where Muhammad was born  KA’BA is the block in the center of the first slide of the power point o Pre Islamic  Islam  dispelling some misconceptions o Muslims are strict monotheists o They believe in a God called Allah- same as Christian god just different name o Islamic tradition claims Abraham as its founder-same as Christian o Muslims believe the Muhammad is the (corrected; as thus perfected) messenger of god and that Qur’an is the word of god o The Jewish Torah and the Christian bible are ‘godly inspired works’, they are misinterpretations of the true message o Jesus and Muhammad come from the same tree  Three revealed religions o AdamNoah AbrahamMoses(Jewish)Jesus(Christianity) o God has tried 3 times to wake us up and has finally done it with Islam  The origins and rapid spread of Islam o Muhammad (570-632) and his society  Arabian geography and  Arid, harsh  Social fabric of Arabia  Bedouin tribes, patriarchal  Life(thinking) was in communal groups; not individually  Once the patriarch had converted the whole family was converted  Muhammad’s life up to 610  Quraysh Tribe: orphaned; uncle Abu talib-a tribe leader; very fortunate survive-most orphans were left behind  Clearly influenced by Judaism and Christianity; becomes known as “al-Amin”- means the knowledgeable/smart  Marries a woman named Khadijah- very wealthy- marries high into the tribe  Constantly praying alone (cave of hira); unsatisfied o The angel Gabriel and the cave hira in 610  What does this prove to historians?  Muhammad has had contact with the other religions  Revelation of a new religion  Very unclear in the sources what happens to him during the “revelations”  Literally: “Submissions with peace to the “will of Allah”  The Origins of the Qur’an o 610-622: beliefs opposed in Mecca; gains new followers  pisses a lot of people off  his wife, a few family member and the “unprotected”-those who didn’t really belong to a tribe, the outcasts of society  Muhammad accuses the Meccan leader of idol worship o His uncle and wife die in 619-lost his projection and his money o The Hijrah tribal conflict forces Muhammad to flee to medina in 622  This date –sept 622- begins the Muslim calendar  Finds rapid success  Immediacy has an army and goes to war with the leaders of Mecca  From 622 until his death he took many wives some as young as 12, has many children with them  The Qur’an o Muslims believes it contains the final, authoritative word of god o Compliled after his death  Not published until 650 under Caliph Uthman  This is important to historians due to the historical context (dates) of other great pubications suchas the gspels, the analects og confucious o Contains 114 suras- chapters o The Qur’an is all encompassing- so is islam  Your entire life is guided by the qur’an o Never had a revision  The five pillars of Islam pick one and explain why it’s the most important o The shahada  Declaration of faith  “There is no god worthy of worship except God, and Muhammad is His Messenger o à “Allahu Akbar” this is very controversial because isis and other Muslim terrorist groups profess this before attacks o The Salat  Mandatory prayers 5 times a day  Dawn  Noon  Late afternoon  Sunset  Before going to bed  Must wash hands and feet before praying  Must face mecca and use prayer rug  Called to prayer by the muezzin  Muslims formally pray on Friday in the mosque  Praying together is a highly important aspect to the practice of Muslim faith o The Zakat  Almsgiving [charitable donations]  Believe that all things belong to god  Zakat means purification and growth  About 2.5% of your income o The Sawn  Fasting during Ramadan  No eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset-then a meal is consumed o The Hajj  Make the pilgrimage to Mecca  Must circle Ka’ba 7 times to recreate capturing of mecca by Muhammad  When pilgrimage is completed Hajji can be added to your name


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