Intro_to_Psychology_Notes.pdf PSYS 100
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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin Johnson on Sunday August 14, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYS 100 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Paul Biner in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Into to Psychological Science in Psychology (PSYC) at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 08/14/16
Intro to Psychology Notes 8/27/15 WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY? • Behavior and mental processes • Concerned with everything a person does, thinks, and feels • Include: overt actions, mental, emotional, and physiological functions WHAT IS A PSYCHOLOGIST? • Person, several advanced college degrees (BA, MA, PhD) o Has additional year or two of training in a specialized area of research • Regardless of the area of specialization…research is considered the most important activity of a psychologist o It answers questions, keeps the science of psychology alive WHO TREATS PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS? • Psychiatrists: MD with a two year internship in psychiatry; patients have both physical and mental problems; write prescriptions; little training in emotional disturbances on human behavior • Psychoanalyst: specialized psychiatrists; practice psychoanalysis (unconscious motives and dreams), 4 years in college, 4 years in medical school, 4 years studying psychoanalysis • Three professions work side by side and help one another • When people seek therapy, they usually think of going to a psychiatrist; however, the practitioner of choice should be a licensed psychologist WHY? 1. Psychologist who has the extensive training in the treatment and research of mental problems 2. Psychiatrists don’t always take the drug oriented, bio-medical view regarding the treatment of disorders a. Drugs often produce further problems like side-effects and addictions 3. Mental disturbance psychologists are clinical psychologists % BREAKDOWN OF SPECIAL AREAS • 46% clinical psychologists • 17% counseling, community and school • 10% developmental, personality, and social • 8% educational • 8% industrial/organizational psychology • 6% physiological, neurological • 5% stats and methodological !!!¡¡¡!!! IMPORTANT: All specialization areas can be broken down into two major sub areas. 1. Human services fields a. Provide psychological services to public 2. Experimental fields a. Teach and conduct research >>Human Services Fields • Clinical psychology o Deal with patients with psychological disturbances usually in private practice or hospital settings § Interview patients § Administer diagnostic tests § Treat patients problems with current therapies o Patient problems include: anxiety, depression, compulsions, schizophrenia • Counseling Psychologist o Have patients with less severe problems: marriage difficulties, job choice problems, child rearing, problems o Work primarily in industry, hospital, mental health, and university settings o Both clinical and counseling psychologists are available free at Lucina Hall (3 Floor) • Community psychologists o Focus on community mental health o Help community and its institutions adjust to problems § Drug use prevention § HIV/STD testing § Domestic violence safe houses and hotlines o Often consult with city/state officials • School psychologists o Work exclusively within educational settings o Administer IQ and vocational tests o Interpret test scores o Plan interventions o Aid teachers with classroom problems o Mediate parent/student/teacher conflicts o Consult on teaching/learning processes >>Experimental Fields • These psychologists conduct the major bulk of the research in psychology • Physiological o Includes biological and neurological o Study how physiology affects behavior § Brain functions, brain chemistry, and neurotransmitters, hormonal output, effects of narcotics • Developmental Psychology o Study behavioral, mental, and psychological changes that occur over the span of the lifetime • Social Psychology o Study how individuals interact within their social environment o Topics of study: aggression, helping behavior, persuasion, romantic attraction • Educational psychology o Study processes of teaching and learning o School psychologists use research provided by educational psychologists • Industrial/ organizational o Study the psychology of work behavior o Focus on topics like: productivity, job satisfaction, employee motivation, absenteeism • General experimentalists o Includes smaller Sub area specialists § Sensation/perception § Social cognition § Engineering psychology § Quantitative psychology § Environmental psychology § Forensic or legal psychology HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY • Field is only about 130 years old • Didn’t exist until the 1880s • Broke off as a combination of: medicine, philosophy, theology • First psychologists adopted the STRUCTURALIST APPROACH o These psychologists wanted to describe the structure of the mind or psyche o Wanted to document the “contents of consciousness” • WILHELM WUNDT—father of Psychology o Started the first psychology lab in 1879 • The structuralists’ method of research was called: INTROSPECTION (self examination) • Subjects would simply describe what they were thinking and feeling under certain conditions; this faded 9/1/15 • History of Psychology o The Functional Approach § This approach stressed not what was happening in conscious thought but rather… • How the brain worked and functioned! § A lot of animal research was conducted to determine the functions of different parts of the brain § William James led this movement. o Approx 1910… § Functionalism was thriving in the U.S….while Gestalt Psychology (a new movement) popped up in Europe. o Gestalt Psychologists stressed the study of the total experience of the individual. o The first individual to develop a theory of mental instability was… o Sigmund Freud § An M.D. living in Vienna, Austria § Developed the techniques of free association and dream interpretation to treat “hysterical” patients o Called his new treatment psychoanalysis § Focus was to relieve the unconscious of built-up pressures Europe Gestalt Psychoanalysis U.S. Structuralism Functionalism Behaviorism • Behaviorism o Head of behaviorist movement was John B. Watson § A professor a Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore o The behaviorists believed the psychologists shouldn’t even try to study the mind o They argued that we should study only what we can see and observe, i.e. behavior o Modern day psychology is rooted in the principles of behaviorism o That is, one of our major goals today is to study measurable behavior and attitudes • Theories o Theory-a formal set of interrelated propositions concerning a phenomenon o A theory is basically an explanation of why a relationship exists § The key word here is WHY § If we know why a relationship exists, we can then predict when it will happen again! § Prediction makes theory a very powerful concept o We all construct theories of behavior every day! o We are all psychological theorists! o Take an example… § You notice a new person the 1 day of classes and you decide to ask him/her out… § And, they turn you down! *?!*@ o So, the question is WHY??? o What are some possible theories? § You have rank breath § You have B.O. § A newly-formed large zit has settled on your nose. § Your new haircut look helmet-like § He/she is an asshat! o Let’s say your #1 theory is that you have horrible breath. o How would you test your theory? § Buy Altoids § Ask someone else out o Two possible consequences: § The person goes out with you (you support your theory) § You get turned down again (you fail to support your theory) o Note: from theories we deduce… o Hypotheses: specific predictions based on theory o Theory- people avoid peoples with horrible breath o Hypothesis- if I don’t use a breath freshener, no one will go out with me. o What makes a good theory? § A good theory should: • Be logical • Be parsimonious (as simple as possible) • Stimulate new research • Easily lead to new hypotheses • Be testable (relate to real-world observations) • SCIENTIFIC METHOD Theories (explanation) Facts (data) Hypotheses *Start HERE* (predictions) Facts (data) • Methods of Research (ways we test our theories) o Controlled Laboratory Experiment § Prediction: Nicotine reduces activity level (induces relaxation) • Get 30 rats, split into 3 groups of 10 o Group 1: Inject saline (no nicotine) o Group 2: Inject 6mg of nicotine o Group 3: Inject 12mg of nicotine • Nicotine is the variable we manipulate (or change) o Called the Independent Variable (IV) • After the injections… o Place each rat in an “activity wheel” for 1 hour; it records the number of wheel revolutions in either direction o The total number of rotations after 1 hour is our measure of activity o It is the variable we measure…called the Dependent Variable (DV) • So…we manipulate the IV (nicotine) to see if it affects the DV (Wheel rotations) § IMPORTANT • ALL other variables (other than the IV) are the same for every rat! (e.g. room temp, light, noise, etc) • Everything is said to be “controlled for” (except the IV) • In this way, we can make “cause and effect” statements • If the wheel rotations differ across groups, then the nicotine must have caused the differences o REST OF NOTES ON SLIDE PICTURES IN ANOTHER FILE