Biology 102: Week 1 Scientific Method/Introduction into Evolution
Biology 102: Week 1 Scientific Method/Introduction into Evolution 102
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chandler Hartley on Monday August 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 102 at Washington State University taught by Justine Rupp, and Paul Verrell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 226 views. For similar materials see BSCI General biology in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 08/15/16
The Scientific Method ● Course Overview ○ What is science? ○ How does the Scientific Method work? ○ Basics of Evolution ● Important People ○ Barbara McClintock ■ Nobel Prize winner ■ Studied the genetic of plants ● Allowed us to create large quantities of food ○ George Washington Carver ■ Studied the genetics of breeding plants ● Which impacts the types of crops that are grown today ○ Cesar Milstein ■ Nobel Prize winner ■ Studied the biology of antibodies ● Two major branches of scientists ○ Field Study ■ Going out into the natural world to study ○ Lab Study ■ Test hypothesis in a lab ● Science is a way of knowing ○ Other ways to find the place for humans in the natural world include: ■ Art ■ History ■ Religion ● What is NOT Science? ○ Books are just a PRODUCT of science, not science ● What IS Science? ○ Based on observations ○ A way of knowing ○ A process ○ Depends on the ability to show the same results reliably ○ Doesn't include supernatural forces ■ Explanations that rely on unknown forces ● For example a possible explanation for why your phone isn't on your nightstand is that a unicorn took it. More realistically you probably left it somewhere else. The instance with the unicorn, while a small possibility has no evidence and is thus known as a Supernatural Force. ○ Evidence based not belief or faith based ● Scientific Method ○ Observation ○ Hypothesis ■ Educated Guess or possible answer to the observation ○ Prediction ■ If the hypothesis is true, THEN something will happen ● Still not proven, just a guess ○ Test ■ If prediction is true, hypothesis is still not 100% certain ● Always be sceptical of your result ● Do multiple test to rule out inconsistent results ■ If hypothesis isn't true, change, or create a new hypothesis ● Louis Pasteur ○ Microbiologist ○ Found if milk is heated before being put into a cold area, THEN it goes bad (develops bacteria) slower ■ Process of Pasteurization ○ His work ■ Hypothesis ● Spontaneous generation of random living things ■ Test ● Broth heated (decontaminated) close with a tube, but with a bend (like a toilet system) and water in the U ○ After weeks/months nothing grows ● Broth heated, but then opened flask ○ Organisms grew ● Drawn version in the Notes!! ● Studies should be simple and informative ● Nothing is ever 100% true ○ Always a chance something will be different if recreated ● Theory has many connotations ○ If asking what your theory of something is ■ More of a hypothesis ○ To scientists it has been proven many times, and has a substantial backing in the scientific communities Evolution ● Important People ○ Th. Dobzhansky ○ Carl Sagan ■ "Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence" ● Evolution ○ Change over time ○ The origin of life remains a mystery ■ Scientists attempt to recreate the closest time periods to the origin ○ Occurs in 2 parts ■ Space ● Opportunities for evolution to occur ○ Pangea onward changes: ■ Climates ■ Landmasses ■ Movement of plates ■ Time (Earth is 4.5 Billion years old) ○ Explained through the fossil record ■ Fairly incomplete, but thus far has done a good job filling it over time ■ Fossils place species and life forms all over the world even if not currently there anymore ○ Transitional Fossils ■ Fossils that fill in the "gaps" in the fossil record from 1 species to another ■ One of the earliest bird like fossils was Archaeopteryx ● Size of a black bird ● Bridge between reptiles and birds ■ Extremely important in proving the existence of evolution through an example of a change in kind of species