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by: Madison Ultimate Notetaker
Madison Ultimate Notetaker
Long Beach State
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Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology
Richard Rosenberg
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Ultimate Notetaker on Monday August 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 220 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Richard Rosenberg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Research Methods in Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.

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Date Created: 08/15/16
Sensation and Perception (02-18-14) -When a tree falls and there is no one around does it make a sound? -for any sensation it needs a stimulus and a receptor to receive the stimulus Sensation: outside stimulus that is registered by the brain Perception: process by which sensory info is organized and interpreted by the brain Measures of sensation: 1) absolute threshold: minimum stimuli detectable 50% of the time 2) difference threshold: change in stimulus to produce “just noticeable difference” 50% of the time 3) Transduction: sensory stimulation transforms into neural impulses; takes place in sensory receptor sites Organization of the Sensory System -electromagnetic spectrum -about 80% of senses are visual -retina only observes purple to red (colors); very limited magnetic energy -light comes in through the cornea -light passes through the pupil -iris controls how much light comes in -lenses allows the eye to focus on objects; attached to two muscles -white energy or electromagnetic energy passes through vitreous humorous -where optic nerve leaves the eye: there’s a blind spot, this is where the brain fakes it; fills it up for us -fovea: no bipolar or ganglion cells in front of it, exposed directly to electromagnetic energy, fine detail; full of cones; no connective tissue -receptors for light and color: -rods: respond to dim light; give us black and white images -cones: respond to colors; allow us to see fine details in visual field; in order for them to work, there must be a high amount of light The Cells of the Retina Light must go through two layers of cell tissue and then hit receptor cell; receptor fires a neural message back down to go to the optic nerve where we receive the image we are seeing -Ganglion cells -bipolar cells: keeps tissues alive -receptor cells: units of energy strike either a cone or a rod; Site of Transduction Major Components of Visual System -occipital lobe processes neural patterns -occipital lobe sends it to frontal where frontal lobe processes what we are looking at; matches familiarity Info is divided and Crosses the Optic Chasm -retinas are split -half info is in one half of the brain; other half is on the other half of the brain -brain has to put it together fast Color Vision Theories of colors vision: -trichromatic theory -3 types of cones: red, green, blue -opponent process theory -change in firing rate for diff colors; color coding in retina; gateway where it decides which color you are seeing; yellow activates both red and green cone gateway but it closes because it is not green nor red; color blindness relates to gateways not working properly Hearing Frequency: pitch/note Amplitude: loudness Auditory system 1) Sound waves comes through ear canal 2) Membrane; piece of tissues that vibrates to the frequency of the sound wave=ear drum 3) Vibration hits the malleus, incus, and stapes (3 bones in the ear) 4) Hits the cochlea which is filled with a liquid; vibration transfers to the liquid in the cochlea 5) Organ of Chordy which hair lined with hair cells; the bending of the hair cells starts a neural transmission=sound -end of cochlea has the low frequency Taste Four taste detectors: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, MSG Taste is a chemical sense Smell -very poorly developed in humans -habituate to smells quickly The Olfactory System -olfactory bulbs respond to different chemicals; the chemicals we breathe in respond to different cells Skin Senses -sharp pain: -paccinian corpus receptor: aching -wrapped around the base of each hair cells are free nerve ending; alert you when hair is touched -pain: -gate control theory: A fibers, pressure receptors, fast conducting; C fibers, dull, throbbing, continuous, slow conducting -Endorphins: runner’s high, placebo, pain relief which in blocked by naloxone Kinesthetic Senses -relative position of body parts; movement in body parts; receptors in joints, ligaments, and muscles Vestibular Senses -balance and movement of muscle groups -allows us to move our body according to the ground and gravity -motion sickness Perception -the organization and interpretation of data -gestalt principles -the brain is hard wired to organize info -into whole patterns -closure (fill in, assume); proximity; continuation (continue patterns); common fate (things that are doing similar things, we group together); figure ground -law of pragnanz: good image, our brain makes an image better than what it is supposed to be -color constancy: shadow and light -size constancy: near and far; but we know they’re moving not growing or shrinking -shape and location constancy Perceiving Depth Monocular cues: (what artists use in paintings) -texture gradient: farther away, the texture appears smoother -inter-position: just because something is blocking someone’s arm, doesn’t mean they don’t have that arm anymore -relative size -relative height: taller=closer to us, shorter=farther away -linear perspective: distance makes them look like they come together; railroads -shading Binocular Cues: -convergence: positioning of eyes -retinal disparity: right and left retinas separated but when they come together, something isn’t right; 3D movies without glasses


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