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Psych Class Notes

by: Kate Fulton

Psych Class Notes PY 101 - Intro to Psychology

Kate Fulton
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For this particular class, the teacher almost always provided a notes template for every class topic - meant to be filled in by the student during lecture. The following attachments are my filled ...
Introductory Psychology
Fridlund, A J
Class Notes




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This 55 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Fulton on Monday August 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Fridlund, A J in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of California Santa Barbara.

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Date Created: 08/15/16
FAIR­GAME SHEET ­ FINAL EXAM  Final exam: 65 multiple choice questions, each counts 2 points Thinking  Geons­the simple 2D or 3D forms such as cylinders, bricks, wedges, cones, circles and  rectangles corresponding to the simple parts of an object in Biederman's Recognition­ by­components theory. The theory proposes that the visual input is matched against  structural representations of objects in the brain; complex images are just a bunch of  geons combined into something that makes sense  Prototype theory of meaning:  (“doggiest” dog – characterize an object based on how  well it fits the idea you have of it) – the process by which we decide whether an object  fits into a category by determining how well it resembles that category “impossible figures” not composed of geons we recognize Spreading activation­ train of though, leading to many other thoughts (thinking about  one concept primes or activates concepts linked to the next) Stroop effect and automatization (the automatic thought being to read the word instead  of seeing the color) ­­­ stroop effect requires deliberate effort Mental rotation and map image­scanning studies­ idea that time it takes to rotate a  mental image is similar to real object timeresearchers can infer thought process by  delay in answerbottom up: automatically looking at stimulus Change blindness: the frequent failure to detect change in part of a scene Attentional blink­ remember things that stick out and it then becomes more difficult to  see other things; we ignore a second stimulus if it is too soon after the first Nature of expertise­ developing expertise expands axons and dendrites of neurons  relevant to skillmore organized schemas, more time organizing than solving: repetition practice of skill improves performance on that task only Algorithms­ mechanical, repetitive procedure for solving a problem or testing every  hypothesis, mechanical procedure for solving a problem heuristics (mental shortcut)­ a strategy to simplify a problem Representativeness heuristic (see what looks like it belongs in a category and jump to  conclusion that it is)  Base­rate information­ general or basic info; how common two categories are; when  people apply representative heuristics they often look over base­rate info  Availability heuristic (terrorist ex.)­ form an opinion based on how readily available  examples are in your mind (based on memories of specific instances)  Overconfidence (don’t know what you don’t know) – people tend to be overconfident on difficult questions within a range and less confident on easy questions Confirmation bias – the tendency to interpret new evidence as confirmation/support for  ones existing beliefs (doesn’t consider other alternatives) Framing bias and “spin”  evolution Natural Selection and Motivation  Natural selection Requirements for natural selection:  ­Variability: each member of the population have to be different enough for there  to be traits that are better suited ­Selection pressures: competition for resources that motivations selection  (survival of the fittest) ­Inheritance mechanism: genetics (not traits that are used the most necessarily) Vestigial structures and importance to Darwin­proved that humans weren’t created by  some higher being (God)  Neoteny: when adults still exhibit childlike desires/behaviors; attraction to childlike  faces/continuation of childlike traits (things that look cute are more likely to be nurtured  out developed) Personal vs. inclusive fitness Kin selection­ idea that you should protect your family because they have a portion of  your genome that you want to pass on to either your offspring or your families’ offspring  (protect kin in order to promote reproduction); favors the reproductive success of an  organism’s relatives even at the cost of an organisms own survival and reproduction ­­­  kin altruism Vervet monkeys and calls: communication that is specific to certain situations (ex.  danger call) Taxis – photo (sunflowers grow towards sun), geo (flower roots in stem grow in opposite directions), chemo (plants grow away from cities), etc. – the movement towards or away from a particular stimulus Fixed action patterns (instinctive behavior, like yawning) & releasing stimuli (a cue  triggers a response)  Imprinting & critical (sensitive) periods (during which the imprinting happens)  Corvid intelligence w/examples (ability to make tools) Tryon behavior­genetics study (selective breeding) – showed intelligence can be bred,  but is argued that it could have been based off other factors Evidence on human infant imprinting  Types of mating systems (polygamy: polyandry, polygyny; monogamy; promiscuity) Rationale for sexual reproduction: 1) hedge against environmental change 2)  phylogenetic inertia 3) red queen hypothesis Advantage of sexual reproduction Sexual dimorphism Evolutionary explanations of altruism Evolutionary explanation of sex roles (females as expensive – make a larger  contribution/investment) Sexual selection ­major histocompatibility complex (see below) Male displays resulting from sexual selection  Incitement and "female choice" in mating  Cryptic female choice – egg allowing sperm in Aspects of human mating system  Incest w/costs Out­breeding drive and MHC findings Cryptic ovulation w/rationales Mate guarding Mating criteria Incitement & flirting  Kinsey survey Helen Fisher’s phases of love: lust (begins with estrogen and testosterone), attraction  (adrenaline, dopamine, serotonin), and attachment (related to oxytocin and dopamine) Oxytocin: “the cuddle hormone” Vasopression; works with kidneys to control thirst and effects levels of attachment (low  levels­little to no attachment) Sexual orientation and possible determinants: cortisol adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) “Correlated variations” with sexual  orientation (finger length etc.) “Gaydar” and sexual­orientation  Stereotypes  Reproductive Behavior  Organizing effects of androgens and estrogens (lasting/permanent effects): in utero  (occur early on) ­evidence shows that a developing female or male exposed to excessive  androgens (esp. in twins) ­­­ more likely to be homosexual Sensitive period in sexual differentiation  Role of Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus (SDN) in the hypothalamus: considered larger in  males than females (controls sexual behavior), and the size decreases with age;  generates a pattern of hormone release in females, which controls the menstrual cycle Activating Effects of sex hormones: occur later on; during puberty i.e. (ex. female rat  that is not mother can develop hormones to “adopt” the baby rat) on human sexual  function, motivation, attraction, parenting What partners seek in mates Sex differences in jealousy – men are more jealous of sexual infidelity and women more so on the emotional side Gender identity­more of a choice, not necessarily biologically determined Hermaphroditism – most common cause is cortisol adrenal hyperplasia Common types of intersexes: hermaphroditism (commonly caused by high levels of  CAH), testicular feminization (mismatch between genotype and phenotype) How should intersexed people be reared? should be reared according to prominent  physical appearance, but also allowed to choose   Genetic and evolutionary hypotheses about sexual orientation: gene is still present  because homosexuals rear children, could also not be caused by a certain gene (no  “gay gene”) Emotion  James­Lange Theory: theory of emotions­ your interpretation of a stimulus that evokes  a change/action in nervous system & evidence for and against; you attribute emotion to  your physiological feeling (unconscious) ­but the feeling of fear has been determined to be different from the physiological changes (something more than this) ­­­­­­ Schachter­Singer Theory­ opposite of emotion theory : because nervous system acts  one way you feel a certain emotion (pencil in mouth makes you smile – makes you  smile); apply cognitive idea to situation to determine emotion: suggests that  experiencing an emotion requires both bodily response (which is seen as a determinant  of emotion in james­lange) and an interpretation of the bodily response as dependent  on the situation “Emotional intelligence” – ability to empathize with other people (ex. reading body  language) and evidence  Nature of polygraph (lie detector that measures sympathetic output, including sweat,  heart rate, breathing) and ways of detecting lies  Influences on happiness: most is derived internally  Effects of crying: overstimulation of the sympathetic nervous system (often feel worse  after) ­more to elicit sympathy or emotional support­­­no demonstratable health  benefits Development  Epigenetic landscape (Conrad Waddington): compare height with outgoingness  (taller­­­­more confident) – height is difficult to change, outgoingness is not (physical  traits are often fixed, while those that are mental/emotional are based upon  environment); some genes are more related to nature vs. nurture or vice versa ­how easily certain traits/aspects can be changed based on the environment;  reflects that sometimes genes are expressed and sometimes they are not  "Nature­nurture" problem Epigenetic inheritance: mechanisms and implications (idea stated above that height is  difficult to change but confidence is not) ­mechanisms: the potentially heritable info not contained in the dna sequence of  the genome (methyl attaches to gene and inhibits trait – can be caused by  environmental effects): implications ­­­­differences in epigenetic markers – two  organisms with the same genotypes/dna can develop different conditions to diseases if  there is a methyl blocking gene (markers are changed with age/environment “nurture”) Identical vs. fraternal twins: identical twins begin with nearly identical epigenetic  markers, but different lifestyles can alter their markers as they age Effects of drinking and smoking during pregnancy (fetal alcohol syndrome – brain needs constant excitement, but alcohol inhibits this in the fetus) Capabilities of newborns Cross­sectional (random – just different ages ­ one test) vs. longitudinal (follows people  throughout life or a period of years, more extensive as they develop) studies  Cohort effects (effects of being born in a certain generation or year) Schemas (Piaget) – children must discover certain concepts on their own (4 stages); a  general idea about something Assimilation –associating with a schema/into a schema; using an existing schema to  deal with a new object or situation Accommodation: re­evaluating/revising a schema to fit a new idea; when an existing  schema doesn’t work and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation Object permanence and how it's measured  Conservation of number, volume, mass – children’s understanding of this develops over time (until a certain age, this is not well understood) Erikson's social development model ­ the ego develops as it successfully resolves  crises that are distinctly social in nature. These involve establishing a sense of trust in  others, developing a sense of identity in society, and helping the next generation  prepare for the future; with plenty of room for continued growth and development  throughout one life; what your priorities are during different stage of life/what you are  mainly focusing on during different years of your life Key issues in adolescence, midlife and old age  Temperament Relational (ex. sabotage, gossip) and physical aggression  Continuous (development is a continuous process) vs. stage theories (idea that  development hits landmarks) Effects of cloth vs. wire "mothers" and determinants of attachment: study done with  rhesus monkeys with one given a cloth monkey mom and the other given a wire mom  with food ­­­ sought comfort in the cloth mom and was almost always with this one and  only really went to the wire mom for food Stockholm syndrome ­ or capture­bonding, is a psychological phenomenon in which hostages  express empathy and sympathy and have positive feelings toward their captors, sometimes to the  point of defending and identifying with the captors. Effects of abuse on attachment and resilience  Effects of divorce on children  Social Interaction  Primacy effects on social impressions Methods of assessing prejudice Results of Implicit Association Test Internal vs. external attributions  "Fundamental attribution error" – judging someone else but ignoring/thinking nothing of  it when you are doing the action yourself and attribute this “fault” to personal/internal  characteristics of the person when if you were in that situation, you would come up with  situational reasons for an excuse  ­­­­­ culture Actor­observer effects : occurs because actors have info about their  situation while the observer does not Self­serving attributional bias­ give success internal attributes and failure external  attributes Self­handicapping strategies­ an action or choice that prevents a person from being  responsible for failure; externalizes failure but internalizes success Factors affecting persuasiveness of messages  Salesmanship techniques: ­ "Foot­in­the­door” : make a small offer to get someone to agree to something and then gradually increase ­"Door­in­the­face" : begin with a larger request/offer so then when you bring it down  instantly it seems more reasonable/a better discount "Bait­and­switch" : bait the buyer, once they are there, have the opportunity to “switch”  offer or sell them other things "That's­not­all" : more likely to take the offer if there are extra things thrown in (under the illusion that you are getting a deal) Cognitive dissonance ­ the state of having inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes,  especially as relating to behavioral decisions and attitude change; you are doing  something that you potentially think is morally wrong but then convince yourself that it is not immoral Factors promoting friendship: close proximity, similarity, common interest Biology and physical attractiveness Characteristics of successful marriages Equity theories: focuses on determining whether the distribution of resources is fair to  both relational partners, measured by comparing ratios of contributions (or costs) and  benefits/rewards for each person Asch's conformity studies ­ involved people who knew what the study was and included  a really obvious answer, but if there were people giving the wrong answer, others would do the same even if they knew that the answer was right (the larger the majority giving  the same answer, the larger the probability of conformity) Diffusion of responsibility Social loafing – people work less hard to achieve a goal when they are working in a  group than alone Group polarization – tendency for groups to make decisions that are more polarizing or  extreme than the initial inclination of its members Groupthink ­ occurs when a group makes faulty decisions because group pressures  lead to a deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment Basic setup of Prisoner's Dilemma and use Milgram obedience study (puppy study  came after this and the puppy was in the same room with them, but they continued to  do it, feeling like they were obligated due to the presence of the authority figure) &  results Stanford Prison Experiment – basic results Factors promoting obedience Kohlberg’s view of moral development: is it morally right to steal medication that one  cannot afford for a person dying (wife example or stranger example) and is the chemist  who does not give the medication free of cause considered a murderer? Who was  morally right? ­3 stages of reality: 1) preconvention – based on what parents and elders tell you 2) conventional morality – internal compass of what is morally correct or  not (stealing is wrong) 3) post­conventional morality – reconsider what is the proper behavior  more at a social level, evaluating other people’s behavior; separating self  from society (wife’s health and right to live outweighs societies convention  that stealing is wrong); going beyond societies standards and finding your  own ­stages linked to piaget’s stages of development Problems with Kohlberg’s view – not necessarily descriptive of what, in terms of  morality, is actually being developed ­standard criticisms – the situation he questioned is artificially  contrived/fabricated and probably would not have happened; also, the sample  was biased when he conducted this study (done in the 1800s); interviewed  children, so the questions he asked might not have made sense; what is the  process that transforms one kind of morality to the other? Personality  Psychodynamic personality theories Psychoanalysis (freud, while “psychodynamic” refers to the  combined views of him and his followers); assumes that our behavior and feelings are  powerfully affected by unconscious motives, are rooted in childhood experiences, that all  behavior has a cause/is determined, that personality is made up of the id, ego, and super­ego, and that behavior is motivated by 2 instinctual drives: eros (the sex drive and life instinct) and  thanatos (the aggressive drive and death instinct) Catharsis The Unconscious Oedipus complex ­ a desire for sexual involvement with the parent of the opposite sex and a  concomitant sense of rivalry with the parent of the same sex; a crucial stage in the normal  developmental process Stages of psychosexual development ­ Freud's theory of psychosexual development is divided  into five stages. These are oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. Freud's theory was an  important factor to his teachings based upon the development of the human personality. ­each stage represents the fixation of libido/sexual drives or instincts Components of personality (Ego, Id, Superego)  Defense Mechanisms (know types)  Overall evidence on validity Jung's collective unconscious and archetypes Adler and "social interest" Self­actualization MMPI Empirical method of MMPI (one of the most widely used personality tests in existence)  development MMPI’s detection of deception ­­­­ response patterns for normal vs. abnormal  subjects emerged Type A behavior pattern Cattell's personality research method and  “16 PF” Eysenck’s factors Trait theories of personality Barnum effect: a type of selective validation in which a person finds personal meaning in  statements that could apply to many people Nature of the “Big Five” Narcissism over time: verify the known relationships between  narcissism and the big 5 traits of extraversion and agreeableness ­narcissism can be seen as a distinct personality, the product of a combination of traits  that comprise the big five Projective testing w/rationale­ personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous  stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions and internal conflicts; rests on the idea that you  know what the test means/does Rorschach inkblot procedure: meant to make a profile of people with mental disorders  but has come to be used as a projective measure of personality TA Sections  Turing test for machine awareness, intelligence: human needs to be present to pass the turing test/to distinguish whether it is a machine or not ­if you cant tell if it’s a machine or a robot, its passed the turing test Kinsey’s basic survey findings (also in Natural Selection section)  Kinsey and Klein Scales w/different views of sexual orientation  Nature of “minimal group paradigm” (investigates the minimal conditions required for  discrimination to occur between groups) Effectiveness of mere contact on  discrimination Ways of reducing prejudice: contact hypothesis (integrating superordinate goals, jigsaw  classroom) Midterm info: -Tuesday, nov. 3rd -40-50 multiple choice questions ONLY from the Fair Game Sheet (lectures, mind tap, readings) -need 8 by 11 parscore (the big red one) -review session: potentially Mon. 4-6 REVIEW What is psychology? Major concepts: 1) Free will vs. determinism a. Free will- you are the cause, an “uncaused cause”; you have the will to do whatever you choose and are in control of your actions b. Determinism- takes into account forces of the universe; doesn’t necessarily predict but there is a certain, unchanging path we are all on; everything has a cause (outside of your control) 2) Mind-brain problem a. Monism- mind and brain is the same thing i. Idealism- everything is thought; the material world isn’t real/all in your head ii. Materialism- all is explainable by properties of the physical world b. Dualism- the mind is separate from the brain, but in Cartesian dualism (interactionism) – mind controls brain and body c. Brain-in-vat problem: if your brain is physically in one place and your body in another, where are you? 3) Nature-Nurture Issue a. Which has more influence in the end product: nature (genetics) or nurture (environment) b. Much of our development as far as physical traits are genetically predetermined i. Doesn’t mean that your upbringing doesn’t affect you ii. Influence of parents, peers, culture, etc. are seen in your attitudes, dress, values, etc. iii. Most behaviors/traits are based on both genes and interactions with environment Neuroscience: Language Area of Brain -non fluent or “Broca’s Aphasia”---- (broca’s patient tan) -broken speech but comprehension is intact -fluent or “Wernicke’s Aphasia” -word salad (can speak) but comprehension is missing/doesn’t make any sense localize functions in brain -prefrontal cortex in frontal role: mainly executive/control function; can override prepotent responses (higher thinking and processing) -motor cortex is in frontal lobe – tissues involved in movement -sensory cortex is in parietal lobe – tissues used to feel contralateral control -to move right arm, use left motor cortex -hear in left auditory cortex from right here -occipital lobe mainly involved in visual processing -corpus collusum connects the two brain hemispheres together (means by which two hemispheres communicate -language and math is normally on left side in most people, special visualization and such are on right -visual fields correspond to what you are looking at physically -left visual is perceived from the right side of both sides (processed in right occipital lobe) and vice versa -optic nerves cross at the “optic chiasm”, only half neurons cross to one side ---- half information in each eye goes to one lobe and then the other but ultimately all from the left visual field goes to the right (just the visual field goes solely to the right) Sleeping and Dreaming -circadian rhythm: I day (24-25 hour natural rhythm -controlled by pace-making neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus -reset by the sun (allows you to recover from jet lag, but probably not from working night shifts----disrupts rhythm) -ultradian rhythm: every 90-100 min. natural rhythm many times a day -controlled by pacemaker neurons in the reticular formation in the pons (midbrain) -regulates our cycles of alertness by day, and out flipping between REM and non-REM sleep by night -sleep deprivation: 2 or more nights without sleep leads to -progressive cognitive, motor, immune function impairment -microsleeps: sleeping without realizing it for short periods of time -can alleviate temporarily depression (or trigger mania) -REM rebound on resuming sleep when you do fall asleep after being deprived---more rem sleep than usual slow-wave (non-rem sleep) -slow, “metronomic” eye movements -75-80% of avg. night sleep -deep, relaxing -stage 1: relaxed, daydream like; crosses “point of no return” to stage 2 -stage 2: gateway in and out of rem sleep -stage 3 and 4: deeper physiological relaxation, deficient thermoregulation, growth hormone spurts - dreams: more associated with recall of tedious, conversational dreams rapid eye movement (rem) sleep -“rapid eye movements” -20-25% of avg. night’s sleep -“paradoxical”: active brain but “paralyzed” body ---- sleep paralysis (coming out of rem sleep but body is still paralyzed) -EEG resembling wakefulness -heightened physiological activity -jerky desynchronous eye movements and erect sexual tissues to keep them healthy -striate muscle tone is extremely relaxed -more associated with recall of vivid, visual dreams Dreams -occur during rem AND non-rem sleep -initiated by pre-frontal area of brain -rem and non-rem may differ only because of potential for “recall bias” -dream time is real time -most reflect current life preoccupations -relatively negative most of the time (more common than positive ones) -no known function (no dream theory accounts very well for the evidence) what is/isn’t hypnosis? hypnosis is: -a cooperative exercise in suggestion and belief (cannot work if the subject is unwilling to engage in the activity -relaxing: like meditation, it can be therapeutic hypnosis isn’t: -a memory enhancer; in fact, it increases confabulation -a control mechanism: people will generally not do anything when hypnotized that they wont do when not “in a trance” Learning -classical (pavlovian) conditioning -unconditional stimulus (UCS) - provided -unconditional response (UCR) – occurs without training -conditional stimulus (CS) -conditional response (CR) – learned with conditioning ex. (pavlov’s experiment) UCS=food ---- UCR=salivation CS=bell ---- CR=salivation Basics of classical learning: prior to conditioning, did not respond to stimulus Law of effect -est. by Edward L. Thorndike -responses to stimuli that lead to satisfying consequences will become more connected to those stimuli S------R—“satisfier” -responses to stimuli that lead to negative will become less connected to those stimuli S------/-----R---“annoyer” B.F. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning (consequence rather than response to stimulus like in operant conditioning) -based on thorndikes, but only uses observed stimuli and responses, not a theory about connections -Antecedent stimulus----Behavior----Consequence -within a given context, a behavior becomes more or less likely to occur based upon the consequences of it -four types: positive/negative reinforcement/punishment positive (present a pleasant or unpleasant stimulus) vs. negative (remove a pleasant or unpleasant stimulus) punisher-reduce behavior, reinforce-increase behavior schedules of reinforcement: -fixed ratio -fixed interval -variable ratio -variable interval ratio---based on the number of operant responses interval---based on the amount of time elapsed fixed---number of responses or amount of time is set variable---number of responses or amount of time varies seizures in the amygdala cause a sense of personal destiny 1. Contrary to Kinsey, Fritz Klein argued that sexual orientation A: was a dimension ranging from “unisexual” to “bisexual” B: was a very recent historical construction C: had no biological basis D: was a complex and changeable mixture of behavior, association, identification, and culture 2. Research has found that: A: certain early childhood experiences lead people to become homosexuals B: some specific areas of the hypothalamus tend to be different sizes in homosexual than in heterosexual men C: administering testosterone to gay men decreases their homosexual desires D: cultures mostly regard homosexual desires as deviant and shameful 3. Development studies have shown that by 6 months of age, infants: A: can recite whole passages from “The Grapes of Wrath” with proper coaching B: know about the impenetrability of matter, and centers of gravity C: still see the world in black and white because their retinal cones are still immature D: have a “moral center” that distinguishes right from wrong, free from social influence 4. The idea of “spreading activation” is used to explain A: the “Pied Piper Effect” in which each person’s actions in a crowd affect those of the next person B: how one concept can prime another C: why people tend to be more violent in congested population areas D: how rumors spread and get embellished the more they are repeated 5. Within the context of a prisoner’s dilemma, panic behavior would be minimal if each individual: A: maximized his own payoff B: disapproved of others who pushed ahead C: could trust the others calmly to take their turns D: resorted to violent coercion to suppress any outbreak of panic 6. In most animal species the final choice of a mate is made by the A: male, who usually initiates courtship B: female, who bears the major costs of reproduction C: the male and the female equally, during courtship D: the nature of the habitat 7. Harlow’s experiments with infant monkeys show that when threatened, the infants: A: flock to a food producing “mother” B: prefer touching and snuggling to food C: stop showing attachment behaviors D: could successfully rear baby monkeys after re imprinting 8. Mental rotation studies show that the time needed to make a decision about a rotated shape is: A: directly proportional to the shape’s angle of rotation B: greater if the shape is covered C: a direct measure of the persons’ working memory D: least when the subject is rotating rather than the shape 9. In evolutionary terms, traits that increase a creature’s fitness are defined as those which: A: give it anti-predator defense B: lengthen its life span C: lead to more viable offspring D: make the organism larger and stronger than its peers 10. Demonstrations of “change blindness” show that we can: A: easily miss details from scene to scene when we’re not explicitly paying attention to them B: recognize the large features of a pattern more easily than the small details C: completely miss even large objects if they’ve appeared right after we blink D: easily forget how much money we’re owed by the cashier when we’re buying something and then get distracted 11. Equity theories have the hardest time explaining: A: the “tough love” that parents may have for a drug-abusing child B: the early stages of any relationship C: the relationship between buyers and sellers D: why the popular kids in high school always went out with each other 12. According to Lawrence Kohlberg, moral reasoning at the highest level relies upon: A: the ability to anticipate the opinions of others B: personal moral principles C: a concern with punishment and reward D: adherence to a code of “law and order: 13. When taking the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) the research participant’s look is to: A: respond to a word with the first thing that comes to mind B: discover the underlying theme in a set of brief descriptions C: choose the picture that best fits a given story D: construct a story about each of a set of ambiguous pictures 14. Fixed action patterns are normally elicited by: A: displays associated with pair bonding B: sexually arousing photographs C: releasing stimuli D: aggressive behavior 15. Cognitive dissonance results from: A: disorientation due to strong emotion B: perceived inconsistencies among one’s own behavior, beliefs, and feelings C: a lack of unanimity in group judgments D: conflict between conscious and unconscious motives 16. Results from studies that use the Implicit Association Test suggest that: A: availability heuristics can unconsciously lead us to believe we’ve been somewhere before B: people can have prejudices but be unaware of them C: semantic clustering can occur without the person knowing the categories she’s using D: we can more easily remember people’s faces than their names 17. When taking the Rorschach inkblot test, the research participant is asked to: A: look at each inkblot and say what it might be B: sort the inkblots into 3 piles using a freely chosen criterion C: write a story about each inkblot picture D: choose the inkblot that looks most like the sample item 18. Robert Tyron’s study of maze running rats showed that: A: was most deeply canalized B: even complex traits can be modified by just a few generations of breeding C: both genetics and nutrition affected the number of errors the rats made in running the maze D: the rats’ ability to run the maze without errors probably depended upon their whisker sensitivity 19. Natural selection refers to the process by which: A: animals reliably select mates of their own species B: males always choose females to mate with C: the environment responds to the genetic makeup of the organisms that inhabit it D: organisms with certain traits eventually outnumber organisms without them 20. A job applicant who isn’t hired for the job but then says, “I didn’t really want it anyways” is exhibiting: A: rationalization B: projection C: reaction formation D: paranoia 21. Individuals who are born intersexual: A: usually die early from conflicting hormone secretions B: desire members of both sexes C: have external genitalia that look neither purely female or purely male D: have both testicular and ovarian tissue in the abdomens 22. Most studies of criminal profiling suggest that if: A: works best when combined with cues gotten from famous psychies who use ESP B: often helps detectives crack cases when the evidence trail runs dry C: produced very unimpressive results D: works only with very old, unsolved cases 23. Research on imprinting in humans indicates: A: a true sensitive period for forming mother child attachments B: the need for mothers and newborns to interact right after birth C: that normal attachments can form at various points in infancy D: that, like in rodents, smell is fundamental to human imprinting 24. The Stroop task demonstrates that: A: habits that are well learned are hard to break B: sharpness of perception is important in how people associate what they view C: what is easy to learn as a youngster can be hard to learn as an adult D: associating colors with objects is probably pre wired in the brain 25. The polygraph works by: A: detecting patterns in the frontal lobes that are characteristic of lying B: assuming that most people are under increased stress when they are lying C: placing people in a situation where they have no choice but to confess D: relying on the fact that psychopaths give off hidden signals when they lie 26. According to lectures, Darwin’s main evidence for evolution by natural selection came from: A: his deep faith that God must have engineered the process B: proofs of intelligent design C: the fact that creatures were often ideally suited to their ecological niches D: examples of useless structures in animals 27. Couples are more likely to have a successful marriage if they A: are poor and struggling during their first few years of marriage together B: vent about their frustrations with each other regularly rather than keeping it in C: had happily married parents D: regularly have sex with others to keep their own sex lives exciting 28. Studies of people who have become experts in their field show that: A: most wee born with some kind of “gift” for it B: they achieved their expertise mainly through years and years of practice C: their parents were usually experts in the same field D: they all have incredible memories 29. Research on the “diffusion of responsibility” suggest that: A: more conscientious people are also less likely to be more neurotic B: people who are more open to experience are also likely to be more helpful C: courage arises from insecurity D: more bystanders can often means less help in an emergency 30. Cattell and Eysenck: A: argued that types were better than traits as descriptors of personality B: were both theorists who disagreed on the number of basic traits C: believed that only bitter and cynical Type A people has health consequences D: suggested that passive people were more likely to develop cancer 31. Two babies born on the exact same day with begin: A: walking within a week of each other B: sitting within a few days of each other C: sitting before they develop walking D: typing before scribbling 32. Gender identity is: A: the set of behavior patterns that are appropriate for each sex B: our inner sense that we are either male or female C: the identification of a sexual partner D: formed by most people after a long coming out period 33. In general, trait theories involve the idea that: A: different situations produce entirely different behaviors B: a person’s behavior is rarely consistent across time and situations C: there are basic underlying personality dispositions D: the search for patterns in personality is misguided 34. Dishabituation studies suggest that: A: people rapidly get used to sounds and sights of neighborhood crime and tend to ignore the victims B: even very young infants posses a basic knowledge of how objects interact C: our sense organs begin to show accommodations only after several weeks of early experience D: bad habits are harder to break than good ones 35. One example of a human fixed action pattern may be: A: sleeping B: drinking C: eating D: yawning 36. Studies of the adoptees from Romanian orphanages show that these individuals: A: recover completely from their deprivations with no special attention B: need intensive therapy, but do extremely well afterward C: have lasting cognitive, emotional and social adjustment problems D: tend to die very young from undiagnosed physical illness 37. Individuals with the Type A behavior pattern are more likely to: A: run up escalators B: avoid cracks in sidewalks C: say “Yes M’am and “Yes Sir” to their parents and teachers D: get drunk repeatedly and have multiple “friends with benefits” 38. Evidence against the James-Lange theory of emotion is provided by the fact that: A: we are afraid only when we run B: the autonomic nervous system changes too quickly C: certain facial expressions occur across cultures D: people can feel one way and act the other 39. Darwin’s belief that living things on Earth were in perpetual struggle for resources came most directly from the A: use-inheritance ideas of Jean-Baptist Lamarck B: “noble savage” conception of Jean-Jacques Rousseau C: population theory of Thomas Malthus D: dialectical materialism of Georg Frederic Hegel 40. The self serving attributional bias refers to the observation that we tend to attribute our success: A: to dispositional factors and our failures to the situation B: and our failures to the situation rather than the dispositional factors C: to the situation and our failures to dispositional factors D: and our failures to dispositional factors rather than the situation 41. According to Alfred Kinsey, one’s sexual orientation A: is either homosexual or heterosexual with no in between B: can change if one is exposed early to only single sex parenting C: depends upon early sexual imprinting D: lies on a continuum ranging from homosexual to heterosexual 42. Groups tend to be less in conflict if they: A: have a common territorial border B: arose only recently C: each have their own enemies D: have a common goal 43. The claim that genetic factors contribute to personality is best supported by the fact that: A: different people have different reactions to the same situation B: some traits seem to be related to somatotypes C: an aggressive child is likely to become an aggressive adult D: identical twins are more alike than fraternal twins on many personality measures 44. Believing that “All Republicans are alike” or “all Democrats are alike” is an example of the: A: way that limited contact promotes prejudice B: power of Realistic Conflict Theory C: out-group homogeneity effect D: predominance of in-group favoritism 45. The fact that most people consider an apple to be more like an apple more of a fruit than an olive illustrates: A: that teachers are more important than salads B: a prototype theory of concepts C: innate knowledge from early environments in which we evolved D: the representativeness heuristic 46. “Impossible figures” may be so confounding because: A: we automatically try to reduce any level of cognitive dissonance B: one visual systems try to resolve what we see into simple objects C: our innate knowledge interferes with objects and scenes that we have experience from our culture D: we strive to completeness and common fate in all our Gestalten 47. A man is more likely to be gay if: A: he attended an all boys school during his Oedipal period B: his mother was on a lactose free diet during the first trimester of her pregnancy C: he has several older brothers D: he is right-handed but has equal-length pointer fingers on his left & right hand 48. Current research suggests that schizophrenia is: A: an understandable psychological reaction by adolescents to conflicting messages by parents B: an overgrowth of certain brain regions due to an abnormal stress hormone release C: a neurodevelopmental disorder that may begin before birth D: a psychotic reaction accompanying unconscious conflicts about sexuality 49. According to the lectures, the main biological advantage of sexual reproduction is that: A: allows some offspring to survive even when there are large changes in climate B: limits the ability of pathogens to wipe out all one’s offspring C: requires tests of male fitness in order to work D: is more fun than cloning on a Saturday night 50. Compared to people in Western cultures, people in China, Korea, and Japan are more likely to: A: spend more time in organized sports B: strive to distinguish themselves from the others in their peer group C: have tormented adolescences in which they defy family traditions D: explain events according to the situation rather than to the personalities of the people involved 51. In interpret the MMP, clinicians typically: A: make judgments about individuals based on subjective impressions and clinical expertise B: examine score profiled for individuals considering the pattern of scale values C: set each individual’s overall score to a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 D: include a paragraph from the examinee giving his/her impressions of the test itself 52. The treatment of mania usually involves: A: behavior therapy that trains people in self-restraint B: increasing the activity of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine synapses in the limbic system C: vitamin therapy and training according to established Scientology methods D: medications that stabilize neurotransmitter release and may inhibit protein-kinase C 53. According to Erik Erikson: A: the life span poses a series of inevitable crises that mist be confronted and resolved B: people in individualistic cultures suffer from excessive guilt about wealth and productivity C: Freud did not adequately emphasize sexuality in his psychosexual stages D: adolescence is, in most cultures, a time of harmony and close parental relations 54. When explaining the behavior of others, people tend to: A: overestimate both situational and dispositional factors B: underestimate situational and overestimate dispositional factors C: use superstitious explanations D: underestimate both situational and dispositional factors 55. For Freud, a man would most likely to have problems related to the Oedipus Complex if he: A: was stingy and perfectionistic B: believed that he had been abducted by aliens C: set out on his own to compete with the family business 56. Adults suffering from Stockholm Syndrome most resemble A: combat veterans with frontal lobe damage B: people with Type A behavior pattern C: people with a sanguine temperament D: children who cling to physically abusive parents 57. Research suggests that people tend to pick as friends others who: A: are wealthier and more attractive than they are B: challenge them through their differences to become open to new ways of thinking C: make them feel superior D: are much like themselves 58. One lesson from the Stanford prison experiment was that: A: being imprisoned can lead to helplessness, depression, and even early death B: the prisoners showed a paradoxically greater ability to handle social dilemmas C: having red as your school color can incite people to violence D: the social roles we are asked to play can lead us to defy rules of normal conduct 59. Research suggests that, by birth, infants: A: can rub their tummies and pat their heads at the same time B: can identify faces and imitate facial expressions C: have retained everything they learned in utero D: are, like Locke said, tabula rasa 60. According to Piaget: A: takes place when current schemas are modified to deal with new objects or events B: occurs when new objects or events are modified so that they can be handled by current schemas C: refers to the development of new schemas when the child’s internal logic is reorganized D: refers to experiences with the environments that are inconsistent with the child’s current logic system 61. Milgram’s obedience study demonstrated that most research participants would: A: refuse to administer shocks to humans B: shock people until they heard the first sign of pain C: deliver mild but not strong shocks to humans D: give potentially lethal shocks to humans 62. Human neoteny has been used to explain: A: the fact that infants crawl before they walk B: buck teeth and unibrows C: feminized males and masculinized females D: adult play and social activities 63. For Alfred Adler, the hallmark of good personality development was: A: a continual feeling of personal well being B: an interest in others’ welfare C: the free expression of the instincts D: achieving personal homeostasis 64. The foot in the door theory technique persuasion may work because: A: actions always reflect prior beliefs about the self B: we are more prone to do favors for people we like C: making a small commitment leads us to believe that a large one is justified D: we tend to like those who do favors for us 65. A child who cuts his sandwich into 4 pieces rather than 2 so he has more to eat is exhibiting a lack of: A: object permanence B: visual perspective taking C: conservation of quantity D: class inclusion 66. The following are all members of the Big Five personality factors except: A: extroversion B: conscientiousness C: agreeableness D: concentration 67. Believing that the most common last names in the world is “Smith” (it’s actually Li) illustrates the: A: Stroop algorithm B: metacognitive shift effect C: a mental set D: availability heuristic 68. “Groupthink” is more likely to be found when groups: A: are composed of diverse individuals B: have strong, charismatic leaders C: are structured to be democratic D: have unclear rules 69. Genes for altruism (alarm calls in birds) may spread because altruistic individuals: A: sacrifice one group of young but live to bread again B: put the welfare of the young ahead of the welfare of the old C: contribute to the survival of relativeness with some of the same genes D: put their own welfare before the groups 70. A female is exercising cryptic mate choice when: A: she attracts one male but secretly mates with the other B: she deposits her eggs on the ground to be inseminated C: she mates with many with many males but then reproduces asexually D: her eggs reject some sperm but admit others 71. Projective personality tests rely on the assumption that: A: personality traits are highly unstable and must be measured from moment to moment B: inkblots naturally tend to look like blood and penises C: ambiguous stimuli are likely to elicit authentic responses D: asking other people to evaluate your personality will yield more valuable results 72. Research suggests that a strong predictor of happiness is: A: having a “good cry” every day B: not having long-term goals, but living instead in the “here and now” C: seeking monetary success D: being married 73. Waddington’s “epigenetic landscape” depicts the concept that, over the course development: A: identical twins, whether reared together or apart, tend to prefer the same kinds of geographical areas B: children’s cognitive achievements result directly from their motor achievements C: some traits are more easily changed than others D: babies personalities are fixed by about one year of age 74. The results of the Schacter-Singer attribution of arousal experiment were used to suggest that: A: emotions are the same thing as visceral reactions B: emotions result from parasympathetic rebound C: emotional experience is the cognitive interpretation of arousal D: people can never experience “true” emotions 75. The Id, Ego, and Superego are best regarded as different: A: parts of the brain B: reaction patterns within each personality C: defense mechanisms D: types of unconscious conflict    Sleep Psy 1 Lecture Notes Alan J. Fridlund, Ph.D. Why do we sleep? Why do we wake up? – contradictory questions ­ Is wakefulness or sleep the natural state? Polysomnography – ways in which scientists attempt to measure sleep ­Swiss scientist Hans Berger began this, using the EEG, noticed brain quieted in some places and was very active in others during sleep by hooking electrodes to head; study was ignored at first but taken up again in 1950s at UChicago  EEG – Electroencephalogram (classic): collects signals from dendrites and their  synaptic potentials  EOG – Electrooculogram: put recording disk around eyeballs, discovered eyes  “charge” and point even when closed  EMG – Electromyogram: can tell when muscles are twitching during sleep  EKG – Electrocardiogram: monitors heart for rhythm irregularities  RR    – Respiration rate: involves electric thermometer on tip of nose, cold to  warm indicating exhalation  O2 / CO2  saturation / desaturation ­ ratio of carbon dioxide to oxygen ration in blood with clip on figure (low on  o2 with too much co2, photocell registers finger as dark purple; high, finger is  bright red, which is good) “Dual Sleep” ­first noticed by Berger in 1930 ­REM, or paradoxical sleep, as it seems to be a paradox that one can be asleep and have  such rapid brain activity and eye movements ­Non­REM, as brain slows down and eyes do not move so rapidly ­the different stages illustrate the transition in the EEG  ­hop into and out of REM only from stage 2 (gateway), almost identical to waking in  terms of speed of rhythm and activity on EEG  Non­REM Sleep REM (rapid eye movement) Sleep – Stage 1 – Stage 2 – Stage 3+4 (Delta) – (goes deeper and deeper as brain slows) EEG Changes During Sleep (Picture) Qualities of Dual Sleep  All orders of mammals seem to have dual sleep except monotremes (e.g., anteaters,  duckbill platypi) and cetaceans (e.g., whales, dolphins, porpoises)  85% of mammals have polyphasic, meaning they take multiple naps with wake time,  sleep. Humans (except infants) have monophasic, sleep through the night and are then  diurnal, sleep, and shouldn’t try to be polyphasic. Humans are meant to sleep  monophasically.  The human sleep­wake cycle governed by an internal 25­hour circadian rhythm (circa­ every, dian­day) by means of an internal oscillator, tuned externally to 24 hr by the sun.  Mammals differ widely in how long they sleep (6­10,12+, depending on metabolism,  activity, i.e.)  Human REM periods alternate with Non­REM periods according to a 90­100 minute  ultradian rhythm (many times a day with “peaks” and “troughs”, or negative), but  mammals differ in how fast ehy cycle between REM and NREM sleep.  REM periods last longer as the night progresses because REM sleep is so active in the  brain  REM sleep can be exhausting.  In babies, half of their sleep is Non­REM, the other half is REM  The older you are, the less time you spend in REM while you sleep (wakefulness gets  sleepier in a sense, but you sleep lighter) REM Sleep Across the Life Span (Picture) Sleep and Aging  People sleep less as they get older, and the proportion of time in REM sleep  decreases.  Overall sleep gets lighter and wakefulness gets ‘sleepier.’  Aging is often accompanied by chronic sleep deprivation due to:  illness, pain,  breathing problems, frequent need to urinate: muscle lining of bladder is less  flexible and thus does not hold as much Stages of Non­REM Sleep (how you enter sleep)  Stage 1 – transition between wakefulness and clear sleep  “Daydreaming state”  Stage 2 – first bona fide sleep stage; “point of no return” at onset, bottom drop out with a jolt  Delta (stages 3 and 4) – deepest, most restful type of sleep – Physiological relaxation – Slow, rolling eye movements – Mundane “talking” dreams (can have dreams in Non­REM AND REM  sleep) – Growth hormone secretions, can watch bones grow during sleep) – Deficient thermoregulation (body temp drops toward room temp level) Characteristics of REM Sleep  EEG similar to waking state  Striate muscle tone greatly reduced  Heightened physiological activity  Rapid, jerky, desynchronous eye movements  Erection of sexual tissue  Vivid visual dreams  Reduced by nearly all drugs / medications  Striate muscle tone greatly reduced (except for birds) – “REM without atonia” – Sleep paralysis Typical Night’s Sleep 0’ ­ Go to bed 5­10’ ­ Enter Stage 1 Sleep 10­15’ ­ Transition from Stage 1 to Stage 2 Sleep  “Point of No Return” (?) Myoclonic jerk 45’ ­ Transition from Stage 2 to Delta Sleep 70­90’ ­ 1st REM period (~ 5 min long) “REM latency” Alternates w/ Stage 2 sleep every 90­100’  every ­ Succeeding REM periods 90­100’ 420 ­ 480’ ­ Awakening (approx. 7 ­ 8 hr.) Sleep Through the Night (Picture) Brain Mechanisms in Sleep  Sleep onset is triggered by the release of melatonin from the pineal gland  The pineal gland’s is in turn controlled by “pacemaker” neurons in the  suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, which regulates the  circadian rhythm.  The switches between REM and NREM sleep are controlled by multiple areas in  the hindbrain (pons) and midbrain (reticular formation).  Dreams are initiated by the prefrontal area of the brain. Theories About Sleep  Anti­predator adaptation – sleep forces us to be quiet at certain times of the day.  Restorative – sleep helps us recover something depleted during wakefulness.  Facilitates learning – sleep (especially REM) might help us consolidate  memories.  Thermoregulatory – Sleep (alternating REM with NREM sleep) keeps us from  overheating, and helps conserve energy.  No theory about sleep works very well. Some People Don’t Sleep [Slide] Effects of Sleep Deprivation  Missing 1 night’s sleep results in sleepiness and slight cognitive and motor  impairment.  Missing 2 or more nights’ sleep causes progressive cognitive and motor  impairment.   “Microsleeps” begin to intrude upon wakefulness.  Sleep­deprived people always underestimate their deficits.  Does not cause lasting mental illness.  Can alleviate depression (temporarily) or trigger mania.  Compromises immune function and increases risk of many illnesses.  “REM rebound” on resuming sleep  BUT – “sleep deprivation” refers to one’s habitual sleep times. Some individuals  never sleep. Partial Sleep Deprivation [ Video] Elements of Sleep Hygiene  “Power naps” after lunch, no longer than 30 minutes (longer naps steal sleep time  from night and cause sleep inertia); caffeine + power naps; not caffeine alone.   Chronic, constant, moderate exercise  No after­dinner exercise  Minimal stimulant use  Constant sleep / wake­up times (can’t catch up on sleep), and no weekend sleep­ ins (oversleeping makes you sleep­drunk)  Minimal noise  Darkness  Stillness  Constant diet  Sleep­anxiety cycles: cause and prevention Dreams  We dream in both REM and Slow­Wave sleep.  REM­sleep dream reports tend to describe more visual and active dreams.  Dream time is real time (no dream condensation).  Few dreams are bizarre; most reflect current life preoccupations  The themes of one’s dreams vary little year after year.  Dreams contain more: – bad outcomes than good ones – negative emotions than positive ones – ag


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