GEOG 1111 Geography Lecture 1 & 2 Notes (Week 1 - 8/12-15)
GEOG 1111 Geography Lecture 1 & 2 Notes (Week 1 - 8/12-15) GEOG 1111
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Notetaker on Monday August 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1111 at University of Georgia taught by Hopkins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 227 views. For similar materials see Intro to Physical Geography in Geography at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/15/16
Geography 1111 Lecture 1 & 2 Notes Geography: the study and analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of phenomena on the Earth’s surface and the underlying processes which cause the observed pattern o Why is the pattern the way it is, what causes it? Five Fundamental Themes of Geography: 1. Location: can be both absolute and relative o It is the spatial component of geography Absolute: latitude and longitude or GPS coordinates Relative: comparing one location to another by the distance between them o Measured in either time or miles (kms) 2. Place: characteristics that make a location unique o Ex: What makes Athens, GA different from Athens, OH? 3. Movement: diffusion of organisms and physical events across the Earth’s surface o Ex: the migration of people, a hurricane, etc. 4. Regions: study of areas o Ex: North America vs South America 5. Human-Earth Relationships: impacts of the environment on people and their impact on the environment o It is the relationship between human societies and their environment o Ex: deforestation, human pollution, agriculture, etc. Three Main Sub-Disciplines or areas in Geography: 1. Physical Geography: non-human made patterns o Ex: Biogeography, Geomorphology, Climatology, Hydrogeography, Soils Geography 2. Human/Cultural Geography: human-made patterns o Ex: economic, political, historical, cultural, population, etc. 3. Techniques: the tools of geography o Ex: Cartography, Remote Sensing, Aerial Photography, Geographic Information Systems/Science (GIS) Physical Geography: o Eratosthenes: one of the first “geographers” Measured the polar circumference on the Earth Accomplished cartographer (map-maker) Developed the idea of environmental zones based on temperature o Alexander von Humboldt: “father” of modern physical geography Brought “scientific study” to physical geography o Valdimir Koppen: developed the Koppen Classification System for climates based on vegetation, temperature and precipitation patterns o Alfred Wegner: developed the Theory of Continental Drift which became part of the theory of Plate Tectonics o Charles Thornthwaite: developed another climate classification system based on the principle of water balance, precipitation and potential evapotranspiration o Tetsuya Theodore Fujita: developed the Fujita Scale for measuring the intensity of tornadoes o Robert Simpson: developed the Saffir-Simpson Scale for measuring hurricane intensity Earth’s Spheres: o Atmosphere: thin gaseous veil which surrounds the Earth From sea level to about 60,000km (37,000mi) above surface This is where weather occurs, our air supply is, etc. o Hydrosphere: all the water above, on, and in the Earth in all three states (solid, liquid, gas), freshwater, saline (saltwater), and in-between It comprises 71% of the Earth’s surface, primarily as oceans Vital for most living organisms, many weather and many geomorphic processes o Lithosphere: the Earth’s crust and a portion of the upper mantle It is the rocky, outer shell of the planet, both land (continents) and the sea bottom o Biosphere: all the living organisms of the planet and the interconnections between them and their physical environment Systems: o It’s common to study “systems” or all the factors influencing an area or particular phenomena Systems tend to be in an equilibrium state Ex: a fluvial (river) system, a thunderstorm or hurricane system, an ecosystem, etc. o Two Basic Types: 1. Open System: where the boundaries or interfaces between parts of the system and other systems allows for the free transfer of energy and matter across them o Ex: a weather system, river drainage system, an ecosystem 2. Closed System: self-contained exhibiting no exchange of energy or matter across boundaries Equilibrium State: the changing or relatively non-changing conditions of a system o All systems will change overtime but at different rates o Steady-State Equilibrium: when a system is in balance over time It is neither growing nor contracting but it is in full operation o Dynamic Equilibrium: when a system exhibits wide fluctuates around an average value The average demonstrates a trend over time o Feedback Mechanism: process by which the normal operations of a system cause a portion of the system’s output to be returned as information input What happens in one part of a system has an effect on other parts Two types of Feedback Mechanisms: 1. Negative Feedback: promotes self-regulation of the system which inhibits change o Ex: a large mass of ice keeps the air above it cold which keeps the ice cold 2. Positive Feedback: amplifies or encourages responses in a system o Could be termed as a “snowball effect” o Ex: growth of a hurricane; the system draws in air which causes it to grow bigger and bigger Lecture 2 Latitude and Longitude o Uses a grid system o The Earth has a geoidal bulge at the equator Latitude: lines that run East-West o Lines are parallel o Measured North-South starting at 0° (the Equator) and ends at 90° (the N & S Pole) o Must have an N or S after it for north or south Longitude: o Lines are NOT parallel o Measured East-West starting at 0° (the Prime Meridian) and ends at 180° (the International Date Line) o Must have an E or W after it for east or west A degree is part of a complete circle o A degree can be sub-divided into 60 equal parts or minutes o A minute can be sub-divided into 60 equal parts or seconds Ex: 30° 35’ 15” N 87° 55’ 30” W o Write latitude first and then longitude North and South before East and West Major lines of latitude and longitude o Latitude: Equator: 0° Tropic of Cancer: 23.5° N Tropic of Capricorn: 23.5° S Artic Circle: 66.5° N Antarctic Circle: 66.5° S North Pole: 90° N South Pole: 90° S o Longitude: Prime Meridian: 0° International Date Line: 180° The Earth’s rotation and the Meridians of Longitude determine the time zones o 1 time zone is 15° of longitude 360°/24hr = 15°/hr Map Projections: o When looking at the Earth on a piece of paper there will be distortion of the physical size and shape o Scale: the ratio of distance on the map to the actual distance on the ground Ex: 1:24,000 is a representative fraction meaning that 1in represents 24,000in on the ground A large scale map shows a relatively small area of the Earth’s surface More detail A small scale map shows a relatively large area of the Earth’s surface Less detail
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